Summary of Wassily Kandinsky One of the pioneers of abstract modern art, Wassily Kandinsky exploited the evocative interrelation between color and form to create an aesthetic experience that engaged the sight, sound, and emotions of the public. Jun 30, · Wassily Kandinsky. Russian-born painter Wassily Kandinsky is credited as a leader in avant-garde art as one of the founders of pure abstraction in painting in the early 20th century.
Kandinsky is generally credited as the pioneer of abstract art. He enrolled at the University of Moscowwhat is cost approach if developed law and economics. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship chair of Roman Law at the University of Dorpat today Tartu, Estonia what is a mp3 converter began painting studies life-drawing, sketching and anatomy at the age of He returned to Moscow inafter the outbreak of World War I.
Following the Russian RevolutionKandinsky "became an insider in the cultural administration of Anatoly Lunacharsky "  and helped establish the Museum of the Culture of Painting.
There he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from until the Nazis closed it in He then moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in and producing some of his most prominent art. He died in Neuilly-sur-Seine ina mere three days prior to his 78th birthday.
Kandinsky's creation of abstract work followed a long period of development and what does fema cover after a hurricane of intense thought based on his artistic experiences. He called this devotion to inner beautyfervor of spirit, and spiritual desire inner necessity ;  it was a central aspect of his art.
He studied many fields while in school, including law and economics. Later in life, he would recall being fascinated and stimulated by colour as a child. His fascination with colour symbolism and psychology continued as he grew.
Inhe was part of an ethnographic research group which travelled to the Vologda region north of Moscow. In Looks on the Pasthe relates that the houses and churches were decorated with such shimmering colours that upon entering them, he felt that he was moving into a painting. This experience, and his study of the region's folk art particularly the use of bright colours on a dark backgroundwas reflected in much of his early work.
A few years later he first likened painting to composing music in the manner for which he would become noted, writing, "Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings. The artist is the hand which plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul".
Inat the age of 30, Kandinsky gave what day was june 6 1968 a promising career teaching law and economics to enroll in the Munich Academy where his teachers would eventually include Franz von Stuck. That same year, before leaving Moscow, he saw an exhibit of paintings by Monet. He was particularly taken with the impressionistic style of Haystacks ; this, to him, had a powerful sense of colour almost independent of the how to draw ezio and altair themselves.
Later, he would write about this experience:. That it was a haystack the catalogue informed me. I could not recognise it. This non-recognition was painful how to play a native american wooden flute me. I considered that the painter had no right to paint indistinctly.
I dully felt that the object of the painting was missing. And I noticed with surprise and confusion that the picture not only gripped me, but impressed itself ineradicably on my memory. Painting took on a fairy-tale power and splendour. Kandinsky was similarly influenced during this period by Richard Wagner 's Lohengrin which, he felt, pushed the limits of music and melody beyond standard lyricism.
Theosophical theory postulates that creation is a geometrical progression, beginning with a single point. The creative aspect of the form is expressed by a descending series of circles, triangles and squares. Kandinsky's book Concerning the Spiritual in Art and Point and Line to Plane echoed this theosophical tenet. Illustrations by John Varley in Thought-Forms influenced him visually. She accepted, and their relationship became more personal than professional.
Art school, usually considered difficult, was easy for Kandinsky. It was during this time that he began to emerge as an art theorist as well as a painter. The number of his existing paintings increased in the beginning of the 20th century; much remains of the landscapes and towns he painted, using broad swaths of colour and recognisable forms. For the most part, however, Kandinsky's paintings did not feature any human figures; an exception is Sunday, Old Russiain which Kandinsky recreates a highly colourful and fanciful view of peasants and nobles in front of the walls of a town.
Couple on Horseback depicts a man on horseback, holding what type of artist was wassily kandinsky woman with tenderness and care as they ride past a Russian town with luminous walls across a blue river. The horse is muted while the leaves in the trees, the town, and the reflections in the river glisten with spots of colour and brightness. This work demonstrates the influence of pointillism in the way the depth of field is collapsed into a flat, luminescent surface.
Fauvism is also apparent in these early works. Colours are used to express Kandinsky's experience of subject matter, not to describe objective nature. Perhaps the most important of his paintings from the first decade of the s was The Blue Riderwhich shows a small cloaked figure on a how to lower blood sugar type 2 diabetes horse rushing through a rocky meadow.
The rider's cloak is medium blue, which casts a darker-blue shadow. In the foreground are more amorphous blue shadows, the counterparts of the fall trees in the background. The blue rider in the painting is prominent but not clearly definedand the horse has an unnatural gait which Kandinsky must have known.
Some art historians believe [ citation needed ] that a second figure perhaps a child is being held by the rider, although this may be another shadow from the solitary rider. This intentional disjunction, allowing viewers to participate in the creation of the artwork, became an increasingly conscious technique used by Kandinsky in subsequent years; it culminated in the abstract works of the — period.
In The Blue RiderKandinsky shows the rider more as a series of colours than in specific detail. This painting is not exceptional in that regard when compared with contemporary painters, but it shows the direction Kandinsky would take only a few years later.
From to Kandinsky spent a great deal of time travelling across Europe he was an associate of the Blue Rose symbolist group of Moscowuntil he settled in the small Bavarian town of Murnau. In he joined the Theosophical Society. The Blue Mountain — was painted at this time, demonstrating his trend toward abstraction. A mountain of blue is flanked by two broad trees, one yellow and one red. A procession, with three riders and several others, crosses at the bottom.
The faces, clothing, and saddles of the riders are each a single color, and neither they nor the walking figures display any real detail. The flat planes and the contours also are indicative of Fauvist influence. The broad use of color in The Blue Mountain illustrates Kandinsky's inclination toward an art in which color is presented independently of form, and which each color is given equal attention.
The composition is more planar; the painting is divided into four sections: the sky, the red tree, the yellow tree and the blue mountain with the three riders. Akhtyrka, LenbachhausKunstarealm, Munich. Couple on Horseback—07, LenbachhausMunich. Blue Mountain—09, Solomon R.
Guggenheim MuseumNew York. Kandinsky's paintings from this period are large, expressive coloured masses evaluated independently from forms and lines; these serve no longer to delimit them, but overlap freely to form paintings of extraordinary force.
Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Kandinsky sometimes used musical terms to identify his works; he called his most spontaneous paintings "improvisations" and described more elaborate works as "compositions. In addition to painting, Kandinsky was an art theorist; his influence on the history of Western art stems perhaps more from his theoretical works than from his paintings.
However, the group could not integrate the radical approach of Kandinsky and others with conventional artistic concepts and the group dissolved in late The group released an almanac The Blue Rider Almanac and held two exhibits. More of each were planned, but the outbreak of World War I in ended these plans and sent Kandinsky back to Russia via Switzerland and Sweden.
His writing in The Blue Rider Almanac and the treatise "On the Spiritual in Art" which was released in were both a defence and promotion of abstract art and an affirmation that all forms of art were equally capable of reaching a level of spirituality.
He believed that colour could be used in a painting as something autonomous, apart from the visual description of an object or other form. These ideas had an almost-immediate international impact, particularly in the English-speaking world. This resulted in his work being singled out for praise in a review of that show by the artist Spencer Frederick Gore in The Art News. Sadleir's interest in Kandinsky also led to Kandinsky's first works entering a British art collection; Sadleir's father, Michael Sadleracquired several wood-prints and the abstract painting Fragment for Composition VII in following a visit by father and son to meet Kandinsky in Munich that year.
These works were displayed in Leedseither in the University or the premises of the Leeds Arts Clubbetween and Landscape with Red Spots, No 2 The sun melts all of Moscow down to a single spot that, like a mad tuba, starts all of the heart and all of the soul vibrating.
But no, this uniformity of red is not the most beautiful hour. It is only the final chord of a symphony that takes every colour to the zenith of life that, like the fortissimo of a great orchestra, is both compelled and allowed by Moscow to ring out.
From toKandinsky was involved in the cultural politics of Russia and collaborated in art education and museum reform. He painted little during this period, but devoted his time to artistic teaching, with a program based on form and colour analysis; he also helped organize the Institute of Artistic Culture in Moscow of which he was the first director.
His spiritual, expressionistic view of art was ultimately rejected by the radical members of the Institute as too individualistic and bourgeois. InKandinsky was invited to go to Germany to attend the Bauhaus of Weimar by its founder, architect Walter Gropius. Kandinsky taught the basic design class for beginners and the course on advanced theory at the Bauhaus ; he also conducted painting classes and a workshop in which he augmented his colour theory with new elements of form psychology.
The development of his works on forms study, particularly on points and line forms, led to the publication of his second theoretical book Point and Line to Plane in His examinations of the effects of forces on straight lines, leading to the contrasting tones of curved and angled lines, coincided with the research of Gestalt psychologists, whose work was also discussed at the Bauhaus.
This period was intensely productive. This freedom is characterised in his works by the treatment of planes rich in colours and gradations—as in What family is the gong in — red — bluewhere Kandinsky illustrates his distance from the constructivism and suprematism movements influential at the time.
The two-metre-wide 6 ft 7 in Yellow — red — blue of several main forms: a vertical yellow rectangle, an inclined red cross and a large dark blue circle; a multitude of straight or sinuous black lines, circular arcs, monochromatic circles and scattered, coloured checker-boards contribute to its delicate complexity. This simple visual identification of forms and the main coloured masses present on the canvas is only a first approach to the inner reality of the work, whose appreciation necessitates deeper observation—not only of forms and colours involved in the painting but their relationship, their absolute and relative positions on the canvas and their harmony.
Due to right-wing hostility, the Bauhaus left Weimar and settled in Dessau in Following a Nazi smear campaign the Bauhaus left Dessau in for Berlinuntil its dissolution in July Kandinsky then left Germany, settling in Paris. Several Circles, Solomon R. Guggenheim MuseumNew York City. Living in an apartment in Paris, Kandinsky created his work in a living-room studio.
Wassily Kandinsky, Russian in full Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky, (born December 4 [December 16, New Style], , Moscow, Russia—died December 13, , Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), Russian-born artist, one of the first creators of pure abstraction in modern painting. After successful avant-garde exhibitions, he founded the influential Munich group. More Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Russian: Васи?лий Васи?льевич Канди?нский, tr. Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (16 December [O.S. 4 December] – 13 December ) was a Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting one of the first recognised purely abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. Aug 12, · Wassily Kandinsky was a Russian artist whose style evolved over three distinct periods in his life. An early phase of Impressionism was inspired by his love for Monet's evocative use of color.
His forms evolved from fluid and organic to geometric and, finally, to pictographic e. His family was genteel, well-to-do, and fond of travel; while still a child he became familiar with Venice , Rome , Florence , the Caucasus , and the Crimean Peninsula.
At Odessa , where his parents settled in , he completed his secondary schooling and became an amateur performer on the piano and the cello. He also became an amateur painter, and he later recalled, as a sort of first impulse toward abstraction, an adolescent conviction that each colour had a mysterious life of its own. In the university sent him on an ethnographic mission to the province of Vologda , in the forested north, and he returned with a lasting interest in the often garish, nonrealistic styles of Russian folk painting.
During that same year he discovered the Rembrandts in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg , and he furthered his visual education with a trip to Paris.
He pursued his academic career and in was granted the degree equivalent of a doctorate. By this time, according to his reminiscences, he had lost much of his early enthusiasm for the social sciences. In , when he was approaching his 30th birthday, he was forced to choose among his possible futures, for he was offered a professorship in jurisprudence at the University of Dorpat later called Tartu , in Estonia , which was then undergoing Russification.
He already had the air of authority that would contribute to his success as a teacher in later years. He was tall, large-framed, impeccably dressed, and equipped with pince-nez glasses; he had a habit of holding his head high and seeming to look down at the universe.
He resembled, according to acquaintances, a mixture of diplomat, scientist, and Mongol prince. Kandinsky emerged from the academy with a diploma in and, during the next few years, achieved moderate success as a competent professional artist in touch with modern trends.
Starting from a base in 19th-century realism, he was influenced by Impressionism , by the whiplash lines and decorative effects of Art Nouveau called Jugendstil in Germany , by the dot technique of Neo-Impressionism or Pointillism , and by the strong, unrealistic colour of central European Expressionism and French Fauvism. Often he revealed that he had not forgotten the icons of Moscow and the folk art of Vologda; sometimes he indulged in patterns of violent hues that would have delighted his Asian ancestors.
In in Moscow he had his first one-man show, followed the next year by two others in Poland. Working part of the time in Murnau and part of the time in Munich, he began the process that led to the emergence of his first strikingly personal style and finally to the historic breakthrough into purely abstract painting. Gradually, the many influences he had undergone coalesced.
His impulse to eliminate subject matter altogether was not, it should be noted, due merely or even primarily to strictly aesthetic considerations.
In addition, he was not the sort of born painter who could enjoy the physical properties of oil and pigment without caring what they meant. The project was not, of course, entirely new. Analogies between painting and music had long been common; many thinkers had attempted to codify the supposed expressiveness of colours, lines, and shapes; and more than one fairly ancient sketch might compete for the honour of being called the first abstract picture.
Moreover, in these years just before World War I , Kandinsky was by no means alone in his attack on figurative art. By the Cubists were turning out intellectualized and fragmented visions of reality that baffled the ordinary viewer. Between and the list of pioneer abstract artists included many fine painters. But, when this historical point is conceded, he remains a pioneer of the first importance. In Blue Mountain the evolution toward nonrepresentation is already clearly under way; the forms are schematic, the colours nonnaturalistic, and the general effect that of a dream landscape.
In Landscape with Steeple similar tendencies are evident, together with the beginning of what might be called an explosion in the composition. By Improvisation XIV is already, as its somewhat musical title suggests, practically abstract; with the Encircled , there has definitely developed a kind of painting that, though not just decoration, has no discernible point of departure in the depiction of recognizable objects.
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Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Roy Donald McMullen Art historian. See Article History. Alternative Title: Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now.
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