What material in the cell makes up chromosomes

what material in the cell makes up chromosomes

What is a chromosome?

Aug 15,  · Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of . Chromosomes are made up of DNA. Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called genes. Your genes make you who you are. You will find the chromosomes and genetic material in the nucleusof a cell.

Overview Cell Membrane Memb. Chromosomes - Pull up Those Genes Chromosomes are the things that make organisms what they are. They carry all of the information used to help a cell grow, thrive, and reproduce. Chromosomes are made up of DNA. Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called genes.

Your genes make you who you are. You will find the chromosomes and genetic material in the nucleus of tje cell. In prokaryotesDNA floats in the cytoplasm in an area called the nucleoid. Loose and Tight Chromosomes are not always visible. They usually sit around uncoiled and as loose strands called chromatin. When it is time for the cell to reproducethey condense and wrap up very tightly.

The tightly wound DNA is the chromosome. Chromosomes look kind of like long, limp, white hot dogs. They are usually found in pairs. Completing the Sets Scientists count individual strands of chromosomes. They count individuals what was bartholomew diaz looking for every organism has pairs. You probably have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs.

Peas only have A dog has The number of chromosomes is NOT related to the intelligence or complexity of the creature. There is a crayfish with chromosomes. Does that make a crayfish five times smarter or more complex than you are?

There are even organisms of the same species with different numbers of chromosomes. You will often find plants of the same species with multiple sets of chromosomes. Chromosomes work with other nucleic acids in the cell to build proteins and help in cell division.

When the chromosomes are visible, cells with two complete sets of chromosomes are called diploids 46 in celll human. Most cells are diploid.

Cells with only one set 23 in chrkmosomes human are called haploid cells. Haploids are most often found in cells involved in sexual reproduction such as a sperm or an egg. Haploid cells are created in cell division termed meiosis. Useful Reference Links.

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Intracellular communication

Feb 01,  · Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Chromosomes are highly condensed rods of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), the genetic material which contains the building blocks of life. The indistinct dark-staining material that makes up chromosomes is called. chromatin. What are parts of interphase? G1, S, and G2. In the cell cycle of a eukaryote, DNA is replicated during. The rate at which materials enter and leave through the cell membrane is dependent upon the cell's. surface area. (1) DNA, located in the cell nucleus, is made up of nucleotides that contain the bases adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). (2) RNA, which contains uracil (U) instead of thymine, transports the genetic code to protein-synthesizing sites in the cell.

Chromosomes are highly condensed rods of Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA , the genetic material which contains the building blocks of life. DNA stores important information about the structure of an animal or plant, and it helps direct the organism as it grows and manages daily tasks.

Chromosomes serve as the storage for this important material, periodically dividing along with cells and replicating to make copies of the DNA they contain.

Chromosomes are also very important in sexual reproduction, as they allow an organism to pass genetic material on to descendants. In organisms with cell nuclei, known as eukaryotes, chromosomes are found inside the nucleus. Most of these organisms have a set of chromosomes which come in pairs. In structural cells, each cell retains a complete set of chromosomes, in what is known as diploid form, referring to the fact that the chromosome set is complete.

In cells for sexual reproduction like eggs or sperm , each cell only has half of the parent organism's genetic material, stored in haploid form, ensuring that the parent passes down half of its genes.

Each end of a chromosome is capped by a telomere , a string of repetitive DNA which protects the chromosome from damage.

Scientists sometimes look at telomeres to gain important information about an organism, as they appear to change over time and they may be associated with aging. When chromosomes divide to make copies, the telomere also ensures that all of the important genetic material is copied.

Every time a cell divides, the chromosomes inside are replicated. In mitosis , normal cell division, the chromosomes make copies of themselves which later pair up, so that at the end of the cell division process there are two cells with a set of diploid chromosomes each.

When cells divide to create reproductive material, a process called meiosis, each division yields four cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes. These cells are known as gametes, and when they meet, they contain enough genetic material to create an entirely new organism. In humans, the normal number of chromosomes is 46, appearing in 23 pairs.

Each pair of chromosomes stores distinct information, and any damage to a chromosome can cause serious problems for the parent organism. Errors usually occur during cell division, creating gaps in the genetic material in the chromosome. In some cases, an abnormal number of chromosomes appears, in a condition known as aneuploidy. Aneuploidy in reproductive cells can be a major issue, as it will cause birth defects.

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