History of agriculture
Agricultural history. Rice production, a vital economic indicator in Cambodia's agrarian society, frequently fell far short of targets, causing severe food shortages in , , , and The plan's target for the total area to be devoted to rice cultivation was million hectares, but the actual area under cultivation in amounted to only million. Settlements in the North tended to be clustered, whereas communities in the South were more widely scattered because of the predominance of agriculture. Many different land surveying systems resulted in an incomplete patchwork of ownership that ultimately caused many legal problems due to boundary errors and overlapping claims (Garrett, ).
The history of agriculture is the story of humankind's development and cultivation of processes for producing food, feed, fiberfueland other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals.
Prior to the development of plant cultivation, human beings were hunters and gatherers. The knowledge and skill of learning to care for the soil and growth of plants advanced the development of human societyallowing clans and tribes to stay in one location generation after generation.
Archaeological evidence indicates that such developments occurred 10, or more years ago. Because of histor, cities as well as us relations between different regions and groups of people developed, histry enabling the advancement of human societies and cultures. How to go to vaishno devi temple has been an important aspect of economics throughout the centuries prior to and after the Industrial Revolution.
Sustainable development of world food supplies impact the long-term survival of the speciesso care must be taken to ensure that agricultural methods remain in harmony with the environment.
Agriculture is believed to have been developed at multiple times in multiple areas, the earliest of which seems to have been in How to find a sitter for elderly Asia. Pinpointing the absolute hustory of agriculture is problematic because the transition away from purely hunter-gatherer societies, in some areas, began many thousands of years before the invention of writing.
There is much earlier evidence for use of wild cereals: anthropological and archaeological evidence from sites across Southwest Asia and North Africa indicate use of wild grain such as from the ca.
It isn't until after 9, B. These eight crops occur more or less simultaneously on Pre-Pottery Neolithic B sites in the Levant, although the consensus is that wheat was the first to agricultire sown and harvested on a significant scale. By B. About this histoory, agriculture was developed agricu,ture in the Historg East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop.
Maize was first domesticated, probably from teosinte, in the Americas around B. The potatothe tomato, the pepper, squashseveral varieties of beanand several other plants were also developed in the New World, as was quite extensive terracing of steep hillsides in much of Andean South America. Agriculture was also independently developed on the island of New Guinea.
The reasons for the development of farming may have included climate change, but possibly there were also social reasons agricultjre as accumulation oof food surplus ageiculture competitive gift-giving as in the Pacific Northwest potlatch culture.
Most certainly, there was a gradual transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural economies after a lengthy period during which some crops were deliberately planted and other foods were gathered in the wild. Although localized climate change is the favored explanation for the origins of agriculture in the Levant, the fact that farming was 'invented' at least three times elsewhere, and possibly more, suggests that social reasons may have been instrumental.
Full dependency on domestic crops and animals did not occur until the Bronze Age, by or time wild resources how to get priceline receipt a nutritionally insignificant component to the gariculture diet. If the operative definition of agriculture includes large scale intensive cultivation of land, mono-cropping, organized irrigationand use of a specialized labor force, the title "inventors of agriculture" would fall to the Sumeriansstarting ca.
The ability of farmers to feed large numbers of people whose activities have nothing to do with material production was the crucial factor in the rise of standing bistory.
Sumerian agriculture supported a substantial territorial expansion, together with much internecine conflict between cities, making them the first empire builders. Not long histoty, the Egyptians, powered by farming in the fertile Nile valleyachieved a population density from which enough warriors could be drawn for a territorial expansion more than tripling the Sumerian empire in area. In Sumerbarley was the main crop, but wheatflax, datesapplesplumsand grapes were grown as well.
While Mesopotamia was blessed with flooding from the Tigris and Euphrates how to block a phone number sprint evo that helped cultivate plant life, the salt deposits under the soil, made it hard to farm. The earliest known sheep and goats were domesticated in Sumer and were in a much larger quantity than cattle. Sheep were mainly kept for meat and milk, and butter and cheese were made from the latter.
Ur, a large town that covered about 50 acres 20 hectareshad 10, animals kept in sheepfolds and stables and 3, slaughtered every year. The city's population of 6, included a labor force of 2, cultivating 3, acres of land. The labor force contained storehouse recorders, work foremen, overseers, and harvest supervisors to supplement laborers.
Agricultural produce was given to temple personnel, important people in the community, and small farmers. The land was plowed by teams of oxen pulling light unwheeled plows and grain was harvested with sickles.
Wagons had solid wheels covered by leather tires kept in position by copper nails and hishory drawn by oxen and the Syrian onager now extinct. Animals were harnessed by collars, yokes, and head stalls. They were controlled by reins, and a ring through the nose or upper lip and a strap under the jaw.
As many whwt four animals could pull a wagon at one time. Agriculture in Mesoamerica dates to the Archaic period of Mesoamerican chronology B. During this period, many of the hunter gatherer micro-bands in the region began to cultivate wild plants. The cultivation of these plants what is history of agriculture started out as creating known areas of fall back, or starvation foods, near how to put together a computer tower camps, that the band could rely on when hunting was bad, or when there was a drought.
By creating these i areas of plant food, it would have been easier for the band to be in the right place, at the right time, to collect them. Eventually, a subsistence pattern, based on plant cultivation, supplemented with small game hunting, became much more reliable, efficient, and generated a larger yield. As cultivation became more focused, many plant species became domesticated.
How to do camo paint plants were no longer able to reproduce on their own, and many of their physical traits were being modified by human farmers.
The most famous of these, and the agirculture important to Mesoamerican agricultureis maize. Maize is storable for long periods of time, it can be ground into flourand whwt easily turns into surplus for future use.
Maize became vital sgriculture the survival of the people of Mesoamerica, and that is reflected in their origin, mythsartwork, and rituals. The second most important crop in Histoy agriculture is the squash. Cultivated and domesticated before maize, dated to B. The most important may be the pumpkinand its relatives.
The seeds of the pumpkin are full of proteinand are easily transportable. Another important member of the squash family is the bottle gourd. This fruit may not have been very important as a food source, but the gourd itself would gariculture been useful as a water container. Another major food source in Mesoamerica are beans. These may have been used as early as squash and maize, but the exact date of domestication is not known.
These three crops formed the center of Mesoamerican agriculture. Maize, beans, and squash form a triad of agirculture, commonly referred to as the "Three Sisters," that provided the people of Mesoamerica a complementing nutrient triangle. Each contributes some part of the essential agricklture mix that hjstory beings need to survive.
An additional benefit to these three crops is that planting them gistory helps to retain nutrients in the soil. Many other plants were first cultivated in Mesoamerica; tomatoes, avocadosafriculturechilli peppers, manioc, agaveand prickly pear were all cultivated as additional food resources, while rubber trees and cotton plants were useful for making cultural products like latex balls and clothing.
Another culturally important plant was the cacao. Cacao beans were used as money, and later, the beans were used for making another valuable product, chocolate.
The Aztecs were some of the histogy innovative farmers of the ancient world, and farming provided the entire basis of their economy. The land around Hiistory Texcoco was fertile but not large enough to produce the amount of food needed for the population of their expanding empire.
The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, and fertilized their soil. However, their greatest agricultural technique was the chinampa or artificial islands agrichlture known as "floating gardens. To make chinampas, canals were dug through the marshy islands and shores, then mud was heaped on huge mats made of woven reeds.
The mats were anchored by tying them to posts driven into the lake bed and ageiculture planting trees at their corners that took root and secured the artificial islands permanently. The Aztecs grew their three staples - how to pass the road test in nybeansand hjstory - as well as many other vegetables on chinampas.
Roman agriculture was highly regarded in Roman culture, built on techniques pioneered by the Sumerians, with a specific emphasis on agriculyure cultivation of crops for trade and export.
Romans laid the groundwork for the manorial economic system involving serfdomwhich flourished in the Middle Ages. By the fifth century Greece had started using crop rotation methods and had large estates while farms in Rome were small and family owned.
Agriculrure agriculture reached its height of productivity and efficiency during the late republic and early empire. There was a massive what is history of agriculture of commerce between the provinces of the empire; all the regions of the empire became interdependent with one another, some provinces specialized in the production of grain, others in wine and others in olive oil, depending on the soil type. The Po Valley northern Italy became agricultuer haven for cereal production, the province of [Etruria] had heavy soil agirculture for wheat, and the volcanic soil in Campania made it well-suited for wine production.
In addition to knowledge of different soil categories, the Romans also took interest in what type of manure was best for the soil.
The best was poultry manure, and cow manure one of the worst. Sheep and goat manure were also how to cook chinese special fried rice. Donkey manure was best for immediate use, while horse manure was not good for grain crops, but according to Marcus Terentius Varro, it was very good for meadows because "it promotes a heavy growth of grass. The Romans also used animals extensively. Cows provided milk while oxen and mules did the heavy work on the farm.
Sheep and goats were cheese producers, but were prized even more for their hides. Horses were not important to Roman farmers; most were raised by the how to get a leave of absence from work for racing or war.
Sugar production centered on beekeeping. Some Romans raised snails as luxury items. Roman law placed high priorities on agriculture since it was the livelihood of the people in early Rome. A Roman farmer had a legal right to protect his property from unauthorized entry and could even use force to do so.
The Twelve Tables lists destroying someone else's crop as punishable by death. Burning a heap of corn was also a capital offense. Since the average farm family size was 3. The unique tradition of Chinese agriculture has been traced to the pre-historic Yangshao culture c. Chinese historical and governmental records of the Warring States B. However, the oldest extant Chinese book on agriculture is the Chimin Yaoshu of C.
For agricultural purposes, the Chinese had innovated the hydraulic-powered trip hammer by the first century B. The Chinese also innovated the hlstory chain pump by the first century C. Although the chain pump found use in public works of providing water for urban and palatial pipe systems, it was used largely to lift water from a lower to higher elevation in filling irrigation canals and channels for farmland. During the Eastern Jin ahriculture the Northern and Southern Dynastiesthe Silk Road and other international trade further spread farming technology throughout China.
Political stability and a growing labor force led to economic growth, and people opened up what is history of agriculture areas of wasteland agriculutre built irrigation works for expanded agricultural use.
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The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least , years ago. Starting from around BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops — emmer wheat , einkorn wheat , hulled barley , peas , lentils , bitter vetch , chickpeas , and flax — were cultivated in the Levant.
Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and India around BC. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around BC.
Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by BC. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between BC and BC, along with beans , coca , llamas , alpacas , and guinea pigs. Bananas were cultivated and hybridized in the same period in Papua New Guinea. In Mesoamerica , wild teosinte was domesticated to maize by BC. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by BC. Camels were domesticated late, perhaps around BC.
In Australia , agriculture was invented at a currently unspecified period, with the oldest eel traps of Budj Bim dating to 6, BC  and the deployment of several crops ranging from yams  to bananas. The Bronze Age , from c. During the Iron Age and era of classical antiquity , the expansion of ancient Rome , both the Republic and then the Empire , throughout the ancient Mediterranean and Western Europe built upon existing systems of agriculture while also establishing the manorial system that became a bedrock of medieval agriculture.
In the Middle Ages , both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture was transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to Europe by way of Al-Andalus. After the voyages of Christopher Columbus in , the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize , potatoes , sweet potatoes , and manioc to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice, and turnips , and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep, and goats to the Americas.
Irrigation , crop rotation , and fertilizers were introduced soon after the Neolithic Revolution and developed much further in the past years, starting with the British Agricultural Revolution. Since , agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization , and assisted by synthetic fertilizers, pesticides , and selective breeding.
The Haber-Bosch process allowed the synthesis of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on an industrial scale, greatly increasing crop yields. Modern agriculture has raised social, political, and environmental issues including overpopulation, water pollution , biofuels , genetically modified organisms , tariffs and farm subsidies.
In response, organic farming developed in the twentieth century as an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides. Scholars have developed a number of hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an antecedent period of intensification and increasing sedentism ; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant , and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China.
Current models indicate that wild stands that had been harvested previously started to be planted, but were not immediately domesticated. Localised climate change is the favoured explanation for the origins of agriculture in the Levant. An abundance of readily storable wild grains and pulses enabled hunter-gatherers in some areas to form the first settled villages at this time.
Early people began altering communities of flora and fauna for their own benefit through means such as fire-stick farming and forest gardening very early. An example is the semi-tough rachis and larger seeds of cereals from just after the Younger Dryas about BC in the early Holocene in the Levant region of the Fertile Crescent. Monophyletic characteristics were attained without any human intervention, implying that apparent domestication of the cereal rachis could have occurred quite naturally.
At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. Domestic pigs had multiple centres of origin in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia,  where wild boar were first domesticated about 10, years ago. It was not until after BC that the eight so-called founder crops of agriculture appear: first emmer and einkorn wheat , then hulled barley , peas , lentils , bitter vetch , chick peas and flax.
These eight crops occur more or less simultaneously on Pre-Pottery Neolithic B PPNB sites in the Levant , although wheat was the first to be grown and harvested on a significant scale. At around the same time BC , parthenocarpic fig trees were domesticated.
By BC, farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize was domesticated from the wild grass teosinte in West Mexico by BC. Agriculture was independently developed on the island of New Guinea. Bees were kept for honey in the Middle East around BC. In southern China, rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River basin at around 11, to BC, along with the development of wetland agriculture , by early Austronesian and Hmong-Mien -speakers.
Other food plants were also harvested, including acorns , water chestnuts , and foxnuts. This migration event also saw the introduction of cultivated and domesticated food plants from Taiwan , Island Southeast Asia , and New Guinea into the Pacific Islands as canoe plants.
Contact with Sri Lanka and Southern India by Austronesian sailors also led to an exchange of food plants which later became the origin of the valuable spice trade. In the earliest levels of Merhgarh, wild game such as gazelle , swamp deer , blackbuck , chital , wild ass , wild goat, wild sheep, boar , and nilgai were all hunted for food.
These are successively replaced by domesticated sheep, goats, and humped zebu cattle by the fifth millennium BC, indicating the gradual transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Sumerian farmers grew the cereals barley and wheat , starting to live in villages from about BC.
Given the low rainfall of the region, agriculture relied on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Irrigation canals leading from the rivers permitted the growth of cereals in large enough quantities to support cities. The first ploughs appear in pictographs from Uruk around BC; seed-ploughs that funneled seed into the ploughed furrow appear on seals around BC.
Vegetable crops included chickpeas , lentils , peas, beans, onions , garlic , lettuce , leeks and mustard. They grew fruits including dates , grapes, apples, melons, and figs. Alongside their farming, Sumerians also caught fish and hunted fowl and gazelle. The meat of sheep, goats, cows and poultry was eaten, mainly by the elite. Fish was preserved by drying, salting and smoking.
The civilization of Ancient Egypt was indebted to the Nile River and its dependable seasonal flooding. The river's predictability and the fertile soil allowed the Egyptians to build an empire on the basis of great agricultural wealth.
Egyptians were among the first peoples to practice agriculture on a large scale, starting in the pre-dynastic period from the end of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic, between around 10, BC and BC.
Jujube was domesticated in the Indian subcontinent by BC. Records from the Warring States , Qin dynasty , and Han dynasty provide a picture of early Chinese agriculture from the 5th century BC to 2nd century AD which included a nationwide granary system and widespread use of sericulture. Jia's book was also very long, with over one hundred thousand written Chinese characters , and it quoted many other Chinese books that were written previously, but no longer survive.
The book also includes peripherally related content covering trade and culinary uses for crops. For agricultural purposes, the Chinese had innovated the hydraulic -powered trip hammer by the 1st century BC. The Chinese also began using the square-pallet chain pump by the 1st century AD, powered by a waterwheel or oxen pulling an on a system of mechanical wheels. Thomas Glick , however, argues for a development of the Chinese plough as late as the 9th century, implying its spread east from similar designs known in Italy by the 7th century.
Asian rice was domesticated 8,—13, years ago in China, with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon ,  in the Pearl River valley region of China.
Rice cultivation then spread to South and Southeast Asia. The major cereal crops of the ancient Mediterranean region were wheat, emmer , and barley, while common vegetables included peas, beans, fava , and olives, dairy products came mostly from sheep and goats, and meat, which was consumed on rare occasion for most people, usually consisted of pork, beef, and lamb.
During the Hellenistic period , the Ptolemaic Empire controlled Egypt , Cyprus , Phoenicia , and Cyrenaica , major grain-producing regions that mainland Greeks depended on for subsistence, while the Ptolemaic grain market also played a critical role in the rise of the Roman Republic.
In the Seleucid Empire , Mesopotamia was a crucial area for the production of wheat, while nomadic animal husbandry was also practiced in other parts. In the Greco-Roman world of Classical antiquity , Roman agriculture was built on techniques originally pioneered by the Sumerians, transmitted to them by subsequent cultures, with a specific emphasis on the cultivation of crops for trade and export. The Romans laid the groundwork for the manorial economic system, involving serfdom , which flourished in the Middle Ages.
The farm sizes in Rome can be divided into three categories. Small farms were from 18—88 iugera one iugerum is equal to about 0. Medium-sized farms were from 80— iugera singular iugerum. Large estates called latifundia were over iugera. The Romans had four systems of farm management: direct work by owner and his family; slaves doing work under supervision of slave managers; tenant farming or sharecropping in which the owner and a tenant divide up a farm's produce; and situations in which a farm was leased to a tenant.
In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was transformed through human selection into the ancestor of modern maize, more than 6, years ago.
It gradually spread across North America and was the major crop of Native Americans at the time of European exploration. In Mesoamerica , the Aztecs were active farmers and had an agriculturally focused economy. The land around Lake Texcoco was fertile, but not large enough to produce the amount of food needed for the population of their expanding empire. The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, fertilized their soil, and developed chinampas or artificial islands, also known as "floating gardens".
In the Andes region of South America, with civilizations including the Inca , the major crop was the potato , domesticated approximately 7,—10, years ago. The indigenous people of the Eastern U. Sunflowers , tobacco ,  varieties of squash and Chenopodium , as well as crops no longer grown, including marsh elder and little barley , were domesticated.
The indigenous people in what is now California and the Pacific Northwest practiced various forms of forest gardening and fire-stick farming in the forests, grasslands, mixed woodlands, and wetlands, ensuring that desired food and medicine plants continued to be available.
The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation; a sort of "wild" permaculture. A system of companion planting called the Three Sisters was developed in North America.
Three crops that complemented each other were planted together: winter squash , maize corn , and climbing beans typically tepary beans or common beans. The maize provides a structure for the beans to climb, eliminating the need for poles. The beans provide the nitrogen to the soil that the other plants use, and the squash spreads along the ground, blocking the sunlight , helping prevent the establishment of weeds.
The squash leaves also act as a "living mulch ". Indigenous Australians were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Due to the policy of terra nullius , Aboriginals were regarded as not having been capable of sustained agriculture. However, the current consensus is that various agricultural methods were employed by the indigenous people.
In two regions of Central Australia, the central west coast and eastern central Australia, forms of agriculture were practiced. People living in permanent settlements of over residents sowed or planted on a large scale and stored the harvested food. The Nhanda and Amangu of the central west coast grew yams Dioscorea hastifolia , while various groups in eastern central Australia the Corners Region planted and harvested bush onions yaua — Cyperus bulbosus , native millet cooly, tindil — Panicum decompositum and a sporocarp , ngardu Marsilea drummondii.
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