How Maglev Trains Work
Jun 14, · Maglev -- short for magnetic levitation -- trains can trace their roots to technology pioneered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. James Powell and Gordon Danby of Brookhaven received the first patent for a magnetically levitated train design in the late s. Maglev, also called magnetic levitation train or maglev train, a floating vehicle for land transportation that is supported by either electromagnetic attraction or repulsion.
The earliest patents for electromagnetic transportation systems date back to the beginning of the 20th century. Hermann Kemper, a German inventor filed a series of patents in the late '30s for a technology that uses magnetic levitation trains propelled by linear motors. The first prototypes were tested during the next decade and the first maglev line was opened in near Birmingham, England. The commercial operation has had a fairly short history in contrast to the conventional railway.
Synchronized propulsion makes collisions between maglevs unimaginable. If two trains were placed at the same time in the same guideway segment, they would how to get work overseas forced by the motor in the guideway to travel at the same speed in the same direction.
Maglevs are using their own dedicated guideway without intersections. The infrastructure is designed to withstand a collision with smaller objects and because of the levitation, they glide above most of them.
Apart from an accident in that was caused by human error on a test track, maglev has a perfect safety record with millions of kilometers of service history.
Magnetic levitation technology eliminated the safety risks associated with operating conventional rail transportation systems. Transrapid vehicles wrap around the guideway beam and the SCMaglev levitates between the guideways, making a derailment virtually impossible. The benefits of maglev are hard to contest when it comes to reliability.
The absence of physical contact between the vehicle and the track significantly extends the lifespan of maglevs. As a result of wheels, rails, and supporting machinery being replaced by electromagnets EMS system or superconducting magnets EDS systemthere is less mechanical failure. In addition, moving parts prolong the lifetime of the vehicles and the track.
Even in the event of bad weather problems are rare as the contactless maglev levitates 10 cm 4 inches above the guideway SCMaglev technology. Rain, snow, or ice causes little to no harm to maglevs. Maglevs are famous for their incredible speed. They are as fast or faster than most propeller aircraft.
Conventional rail is not far off in the testing environment. The difference is a safe commercial operation. Maglev can use elevated guideways to minimize the disturbance to the natural environment including wildlife. The flexible alignment parameters allow the guideway to adapt to the landscape. There are no direct emissions from the moving vehicles to affect air quality and the indirect emissions resulting from energy production are getting lower by how to on wifi in windows 8 laptop day as the energy grid gets cleaner.
In addition, noise pollution is much lower than in traditional rail. The absence of overhead lines that provide electrical energy to conventional trains is a major factor to reduce visual pollution. Last but not least, owing to the better maneuverability infrastructure can be built respecting the natural landscape, following the paths of the environment. Maglevs upfront higher cost of building dedicated tracks is compensated by the much lower maintenance fees.
Due to the use of automated non-contact technology, maintenance costs for Transrapid system operation are significantly less than for conventional high-speed rail technology. Vehicle operation causes neither misalignment nor wear of the guideway structure, equipment, and surfaces. Most moving mechanical components that wear down for other technologies have been replaced by non-wearing electronic and electromagnetic components in maglev systems like the German Transrapid or the Japanese SCMaglev.
In addition, vehicle weight is evenly distributed by the full-length levitation magnets resulting in less stress and lower dynamic loads on the guideway. As repairs are costly and time consuming this is a great economic incentive to invest how to remove virus from galaxy s2 maglevs. With its non-contact levitation and propulsion technology, highly efficient linear motor, and low aerodynamic resistance, the energy consumption of the maglev systems are very economical when compared to other transportation modes.
There is no energy loss due to friction, therefore the faster the train the larger the energy consumption difference between maglev and conventional rail technology. Future systems are promising even better results. Transrapid technology is much quieter than other traditional transportation systems as it does not produce any rolling, gearing, or engine noise.
It is therefor the preferable technology both in urban and natural environments. Maglevs footprint is small from an ecological point of view as well as literally. This in result means more available space for the nature to thrive, for agriculture, or for public spaces in an urban environment.
Possibly the least known fact about maglev technology is their ability of steep climb. This enables planning of maglev infrastructure in more demanding environments with hills and valleys. On top of this, maglev trains can take tighter turns than regular rail. Sleek and futuristic design and mysterious hovering above the ground. Maglev is a fascinating technology that inspires creative minds and opens the path to designing the future. The levitation is almost like magic.
It's a common way to portray futuristic transportation in sci-fi movies. Like floating cars and hoverboards in the Back to the Future pop culture movie. The proposed New York - Washington Maglev. Maglev Energy Budget - Stanford University Transrapid International - Maglev System Transrapid.
The Benefits of Maglev Technology Sign in to post comment.
May 14, · Magnetic levitation (maglev) is a relatively new transportation technology in which non-contacting vehicles travel safely at speeds of to miles-per-hour or higher while suspended, guided, and propelled above a guideway by magnetic fields. The guideway is the physical structure along which maglev vehicles are levitated. May 20, · Notably, the passive magnetic levitation concept is a core feature of proposed hyperloop transportation systems, which is essentially an Inductrack-style train that blasts through a sealed tube that encases the entire track. It's possible that hyperloops may become the approach of choice, in part because they dodge the issue of air resistance in the way the regular . Magnetic levitation technology eliminated the safety risks associated with operating conventional rail transportation systems. Transrapid vehicles wrap around the guideway beam and the SCMaglev levitates between the guideways, making a derailment virtually impossible.
Maglev derived from magnetic levitation is a system of train transportation that uses two sets of magnets : one set to repel and push the train up off the track , and another set to move the elevated train ahead, taking advantage of the lack of friction. Along certain "medium-range" routes usually to km [ to mi] , maglev can compete favourably with high-speed rail and airplanes. With maglev technology, there is just one moving part: the train itself.
The train travels along a guideway of magnets which control the train's stability and speed. Propulsion and levitation require no moving parts. This is in stark contrast to electric multiple units that may have several dozen parts per bogie.
Maglev trains are therefore quieter and smoother than conventional trains and have the potential for much higher speeds.
Maglev vehicles have set several speed records and maglev trains can accelerate and decelerate much faster than conventional trains; the only practical limitation is the safety and comfort of the passengers. The power needed for levitation is typically not a large percentage of the overall energy consumption of a high-speed maglev system.
Vactrain technology has been proposed as a means to overcome this limitation. Maglev systems have been much more expensive to construct than conventional train systems, although the simpler construction of maglev vehicles makes them cheaper to manufacture and maintain. The line is the fastest operational high-speed maglev train, designed to connect Shanghai Pudong International Airport and the outskirts of central Pudong , Shanghai.
It covers a distance of For the first time, the launch generated wide public interest and media attention, propelling the popularity of the mode of transportation. In the late s, the British electrical engineer Eric Laithwaite , a professor at Imperial College London , developed the first full-size working model of the linear induction motor. He became professor of heavy electrical engineering at Imperial College in , where he continued his successful development of the linear motor.
Laithwaite joined one such project, the Tracked Hovercraft , although the project was cancelled in The linear motor was naturally suited to use with maglev systems as well. In the early s, Laithwaite discovered a new arrangement of magnets, the magnetic river , that allowed a single linear motor to produce both lift and forward thrust, allowing a maglev system to be built with a single set of magnets.
Working at the British Rail Research Division in Derby , along with teams at several civil engineering firms, the "transverse-flux" system was developed into a working system. The system was closed in due to reliability problems. High-speed transportation patents were granted to various inventors throughout the world. The inventor was awarded U. Patent , 14 February and U. Patent RE 21 August Johnson filed a patent for a wheel-less "high-speed railway" levitated by an induced magnetic field.
Patent 3,, , "Magnetic system of transportation", by G. Polgreen 25 August The first use of "maglev" in a United States patent was in "Magnetic levitation guidance system"  by Canadian Patents and Development Limited. Japan operates two independently developed maglev trains. The development of the latter started in After an accident which destroyed the train, a new design was selected.
Tests in Miyazaki continued throughout the s, before transferring to a far longer test track, 20 km 12 mi long, in Yamanashi in The track has since been extended to almost 43 km 27 mi. Development of HSST started in Construction of a new high-speed maglev line, the Chuo Shinkansen , started in It is being built by extending the SCMaglev test track in Yamanashi in both directions. The completion date is currently unknown, with the most recent estimate of no longer possible following a local governmental rejection of a construction permit .
Transrapid 05 was the first maglev train with longstator propulsion licensed for passenger transportation. Interest was sufficient that operations were extended three months after the exhibition finished, having carried more than 50, passengers. It was reassembled in Kassel in In the USSR town of Ramenskoye Moscow oblast built an experimental test site for running experiments with cars on magnetic suspension.
The test site consisted of a metre ramp which was later extended to metres. The construction of a maglev track using the technology from Ramenskoye started in Armenian SSR in  and was planned to be completed in The track was supposed to connect the cities of Yerevan and Sevan via the city of Abovyan. In the end the overpass was only partially constructed.
The idea was to build a high-speed maglev train to connect Moscow to the Sheremetyevo airport. However, from the "TEMP" research center had been participating as a co-developer in the creation of the linear motors for the Moscow Monorail system. The world's first commercial maglev system was a low-speed maglev shuttle that ran between the airport terminal of Birmingham International Airport and the nearby Birmingham International railway station between and One of the original cars is now on display at Railworld in Peterborough, together with the RTV31 hover train vehicle.
Another is on display at the National Railway Museum in York. After the system closed in , the original guideway lay dormant  until , when a replacement cable-hauled system, the AirRail Link Cable Liner people mover, was opened. Transrapid, a German maglev company, had a test track in Emsland with a total length of Paying passengers were carried as part of the testing process.
The construction of the test facility began in and finished in In , the Lathen maglev train accident occurred, killing 23 people. It was found to have been caused by human error in implementing safety checks.
From no passengers were carried. At the end of the operation licence expired and was not renewed, and in early demolition permission was given for its facilities, including the track and factory.
In West Berlin , the M-Bahn was built in It was a driverless maglev system with a 1. Testing with passenger traffic started in August , and regular operation started in July Although the line largely followed a new elevated alignment, it terminated at Gleisdreieck U-Bahn station, where it took over an unused platform for a line that formerly ran to East Berlin.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall , plans were set in motion to reconnect this line today's U2. Deconstruction of the M-Bahn line began only two months after regular service began and was completed during February Two more stages are planned of 9.
Once completed it will become a circular line. In the public imagination, "maglev" often evokes the concept of an elevated monorail track with a linear motor. Maglev systems may be monorail or dual rail—the SCMaglev MLX01 for instance uses a trench-like track—and not all monorail trains are maglevs.
Some railway transport systems incorporate linear motors but use electromagnetism only for propulsion , without levitating the vehicle. Such trains have wheels and are not maglevs. Conversely, non-maglev tracks, monorail or not, can be elevated or underground too. Some maglev trains do incorporate wheels and function like linear motor-propelled wheeled vehicles at slower speeds but levitate at higher speeds. This is typically the case with electrodynamic suspension maglev trains.
Aerodynamic factors may also play a role in the levitation of such trains. In electromagnetic suspension EMS systems, the train levitates above a steel rail while electromagnets , attached to the train, are oriented toward the rail from below.
The system is typically arranged on a series of C-shaped arms, with the upper portion of the arm attached to the vehicle, and the lower inside edge containing the magnets. The rail is situated inside the C, between the upper and lower edges.
Magnetic attraction varies inversely with the square of distance, so minor changes in distance between the magnets and the rail produce greatly varying forces.
These changes in force are dynamically unstable—a slight divergence from the optimum position tends to grow, requiring sophisticated feedback systems to maintain a constant distance from the track, approximately 15 mm [0.
This eliminates the need for a separate low-speed suspension system, and can simplify track layout. On the downside, the dynamic instability demands fine track tolerances, which can offset this advantage. Eric Laithwaite was concerned that to meet required tolerances, the gap between magnets and rail would have to be increased to the point where the magnets would be unreasonably large.
In electrodynamic suspension EDS , both the guideway and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive and attractive force between these magnetic fields. In the early stages of maglev development at the Miyazaki test track, a purely repulsive system was used instead of the later repulsive and attractive EDS system.
The repulsive and attractive force in the track is created by an induced magnetic field in wires or other conducting strips in the track. A major advantage of EDS maglev systems is that they are dynamically stable—changes in distance between the track and the magnets creates strong forces to return the system to its original position. No active feedback control is needed. However, at slow speeds, the current induced in these coils and the resultant magnetic flux is not large enough to levitate the train.
For this reason, the train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches take-off speed.
Since a train may stop at any location, due to equipment problems for instance, the entire track must be able to support both low- and high-speed operation. Another downside is that the EDS system naturally creates a field in the track in front and to the rear of the lift magnets, which acts against the magnets and creates magnetic drag. This is generally only a concern at low speeds, and is one of the reasons why JR abandoned a purely repulsive system and adopted the sidewall levitation system.
The drag force can be used to the electrodynamic system's advantage, however, as it creates a varying force in the rails that can be used as a reactionary system to drive the train, without the need for a separate reaction plate, as in most linear motor systems. Laithwaite led development of such "traverse-flux" systems at his Imperial College laboratory. The propulsion coils that exert a force on the train are effectively a linear motor: an alternating current through the coils generates a continuously varying magnetic field that moves forward along the track.
The frequency of the alternating current is synchronized to match the speed of the train. The offset between the field exerted by magnets on the train and the applied field creates a force moving the train forward. The term "maglev" refers not only to the vehicles, but to the railway system as well, specifically designed for magnetic levitation and propulsion.
Tags: What is my home worth uk, how to get microsoft word for free student, what is the meaning of before a word, what is balance of powers, how to load a duck tape dispenser gun
<- How to remodel your bedroom for cheap - How to do sweeping on guitar->