what is a underground contamination plume?
Plume is an underground pattern of contaminant concentrations created by the movement of groundwater beneath a contaminant source, with the contaminants spreading in the direction of groundwater movement. The source site has the highest concentration, and the concentration decreases and dissipates away from the source. concentrated in the form of a plume(see Figure 1) that flows along the same path as the ground water. The size and speed of the plume depend on the amount and type of contaminant, its solubility and density, and the velocity of the surrounding ground water. Ground Water Contamination G Water Table Direction of Ground Water Flow Figure 1 CONTAMINANT PLUME.
In hydrodynamicsa plume or a column is a vertical body of one fluid moving through another. Several effects control the motion of the fluid, including momentum inertiadiffusion and buoyancy density differences. Pure jets and pure plumes define flows that are cojtaminant entirely by momentum and buoyancy effects, contaminan. Flows between these two limits are usually described as forced plumes or buoyant jets.
Situations where the density of the plume fluid is greater than its surroundings i. Usually, as a plume moves away from its source, it widens because of entrainment of the surrounding fluid at its edges.
Plume shapes can be influenced by flow in the ambient fluid for example, if local wind blowing in the same direction as the plume results in a co-flowing jet. This usually causes a plume whaat has initially been 'buoyancy-dominated' to become 'momentum-dominated' this transition is usually predicted by a dimensionless number called the Richardson number. A further phenomenon of importance is whether a plume has laminar flow or turbulent flow.
Usually there is a transition from laminar to turbulent as the plume moves away from its source. This phenomenon can be clearly seen in the rising column of what does a chairman do in a meeting from a cigarette. When high accuracy is required, computational fluid dynamics CFD can be employed to simulate plumes, but the results can be sensitive to the turbulence model chosen.
CFD is often undertaken for rocket plumeswhere condensed phase constituents can be present in addition to gaseous constituents. These types of simulations can become quite plu,e, including afterburning and thermal radiationand for example ballistic missile launches are often detected by sensing hot rocket plumes.
Spacecraft designers are sometimes concerned with impingement of attitude control system thruster plumes onto sensitive subsystems like solar arrays and star trackersor with the impingement of rocket engine plumes onto moon or planetary surfaces where they can cause local damage or even mid-term disturbances to planetary atmospheres.
Another phenomenon which can also be seen clearly in the flow of smoke from a contaminamt is that the leading-edge of the flow, or the starting-plume, is quite often approximately in the shape of a ring- vortex smoke ring.
Pollutants released to the ground can work their way down into the groundwaterleading to groundwater pollution. The resulting body of polluted water within an aquifer is called a plume, with its migrating edges called w fronts. Plumes are used to locate, map, and measure water pollution within the aquifer's total body of water, and plume fronts to determine directions and speed of the contamination's spreading in it.
Plumes are of considerable importance in the atmospheric dispersion modelling of air pollution. A classic work on the subject of air pollution plumes is that by Gary Briggs. A ehat plume is one which is generated by gas rising above heat source. The gas rises because thermal expansion makes what age to take creatine gas less dense than the surrounding cooler gas.
Quite simple modelling will enable many properties of fully developed, turbulent plumes to be investigated. Gaussian plume models can be used in several fluid dynamics scenarios to calculate concentration distribution of solutes such as a smoke stack release or contaminant released in a river.
Gaussian distributions are established by Fickian diffusion, and follow a gaussian bell-shaped distribution. This will give the following equation: . This equation makes the following four assumptions: . A nuclear explosion can generate a mushroom-shaped thermal plume. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Air pollution dispersion terminology Atmospheric dispersion modeling Bibliography of atmospheric dispersion modeling Cryovolcano Enceladus — moon of planet Saturn Eruption column.
Fluid Mech. Haugen, editor, Amer. Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion 4th ed. ISBN Time-dependent plumes and jets with decreasing source strengthsJ. Tait, S. Retrieved 25 April How to prepare a portfolio for architecture school Mass Transport in Environmental Flows.
UC Berkeley. Categories : Fluid dynamics Aquifers Water pollution Atmospheric dispersion modeling. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons.
TCE - Trichloroethylene
As contamination moves it disperses. This means that the concentration decreases as it moves farther away from the source of the pollution. For that reason there are different concentrations of contaminants at different points in the aquifer. The visual representation of these different concentrations is called a contamination plume. How the. A New Method of Contaminant Plume Analysis. P. A. Domenico. Department of Geology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas Search for more papers by this author the position of the center of mass which is the product of the seepage velocity and the time since the contaminant first entered the ground water, and up to three. Mar 04, · it is an area of contaminated water in an aquifer. The plume starts at the source of contamination and spreads out into the aquifer in a sort of feather .
Understanding the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the migration, shape, and size of contaminant plumes is key to developing cost-effective remediation plans. Many USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Toxics Program scientists have studied a variety of contaminant plumes with the goal of understanding in a holistic sense how contaminant plumes interact with ground water, microorganisms, and aquifer materials.
The information presented on this page cuts across lines drawn by individual investigations and projects so that information on the contaminant plume geochemistry and microbiology can be presented in one place.
A handful of sand from aquifer sediments on western Cape Cod, MA. The surfaces of these quartz grains are covered by coatings containing iron and aluminum oxides and silicates. Arsenic in the coatings can be released by changes in chemical conditions caused by contaminant plumes such as the plume of treated sewage that is the subject of the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program's investigation on Cape Cod.
Sampling redox-sensitive water-quality parameters on-site at the Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma. Department of the Interior U.
Geological Survey URL: toxics. Toxics Home About The Program. Crosscutting Topics. Contaminant Plume Geochemistry and Microbiology Geochemical and microbiological characterization of processes related to contaminant plume migration and evolution Understanding the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the migration, shape, and size of contaminant plumes is key to developing cost-effective remediation plans.
The role of alluvial aquifer sediments in attenuating a dissolved arsenic plume : Ziegler, B. Anoxic nitrate reduction coupled with iron oxidation and attenuation of dissolved arsenic and phosphate in a sand and gravel aquifer : Smith, R.
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