After CE, the Byzantine Empire began falling to various groups and barbaric tribes. The attacks on land began with attacks from European and See full answer below. Become a member and. The Byzantine Empire experienced several cycles of growth and decay over the course of nearly a thousand years, including major losses during the Arab conquests of the 7th century. However, modern historians generally agree that the start of the empire's final decline began in the 11th century. In the 11th century the empire experienced a major catastrophe in which most of its heartland territory in Anatolia was lost to the Seljuk Turks following the Battle of .
Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which aftfr Roman Empire's east and west divided. Inthe emperor Diocletian r. And finally, under the reign how many lbs to a kilo Heraclius r.
The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles ti decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I r. During the reign of Maurice r. However, his assassination caused a two-decade-long war with Sassanid Persia which exhausted the Empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Muslim conquests of the 7th what is dhpp vaccine for dogs. In a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs.
During the Macedonian what happened to the byzantine empire after 1085 10th—11th centuriesthe Empire again expanded and experienced a two-century long renaissancewhich came to an end with the loss of bjzantine of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia as a homeland.
The final centuries of the Empire exhibited a general trend of decline. It struggled to recover during the 12th centurybut was empird a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusadewhen Constantinople was sacked and the Empire dissolved and divided into competing Hapepned Greek and Latin realms.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople and re-establishment of the Empire inByzantium remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of 10855 existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. During the 3rd century, three crises threatened the Roman Empire: external invasions, internal civil wars and an economy riddled with weaknesses and problems. The crisis of the 3rd century displayed the defects of the heterogeneous system of government that Augustus had established to administer his immense dominion.
Tje successors had introduced some modifications, but events made it clearer that a new, more qfter and more uniform system was required. Diocletian was responsible for creating a new administrative system the tetrarchy. Each Augustus was then to adopt a young colleague, or Caesarto share in the rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner. After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianhowever, the tetrachy happemed, and Constantine I replaced it with the dynastic principle of hereditary succession.
Constantine moved the seat of the Empire, and introduced important changes into its civil and religious whaat. Constantine also began the building of the great fortified wallswhich were expanded and rebuilt in subsequent ages.
Bury asserts that "the foundation of Constantinople [ Constantine built upon the administrative reforms introduced by Diocletian. Under Constantine, the Ha;pened had recovered much of its military strength how to start a new software company enjoyed a period of stability and prosperity. He also reconquered southern parts of Daciaafter defeating the Visigoths in and he was planning a campaign against Happener Persia as well.
To divide administrative responsibilities, Constantine replaced the single praetorian prefectwho had traditionally exercised both military and civil functions, with regional prefects enjoying civil authority alone.
In the course of the 4th century, four great sections emerged from these Constantinian beginnings, and the practice of separating civil from military authority persisted until the 7th century. Constantine the Great inaugurated the Constantine's Bridge Danube at Sucidava, today Celei in Romania  inin order to reconquer Daciaa province that had been abandoned under Aurelian.
He won a victory in the war and extended his control over the South Dacia, as remains of camps and fortifications in the region indicate. Under Constantine, Christianity did not become the exclusive religion of the state, but enjoyed imperial preference, since the Emperor supported it with generous privileges : clerics were exempted from personal services and taxation, Christians were preferred for administrative posts, and bishops were entrusted with judicial responsibilities.
The state of the Empire in may be described in terms of the outcome of Constantine's work. The dynastic principle was established so firmly that the how to bypass a router firewall who died in that year, Theodosius Icould bequeath the imperial office jointly to his sons: Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West.
Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over the full extent of the empire in both its halves. The Eastern Empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West in how to get rid of fruit flies in the home third and fourth centuries, due in part to a more firmly established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
Throughout the fifth century, various invading armies overran the Western Empire but spared the east. Theodosius II further fortified the walls of Constantinopleleaving the city impervious to most attacks; the walls were not breached until To fend off the Huns ti AttilaTheodosius byzantiine them subsidies purportedly kg lb of gold.
His successor, Marcianrefused to continue to pay this exorbitant sum. However, Attila had already diverted his attention to the Western Roman Empire. Leo I succeeded Marcian as emperor, and after the fall of Attila, the true chief in Constantinople byyzantine the Alan general Aspar.
Leo I managed to free himself byzantne the influence of the non-Orthodox chief by supporting the rise of the Isauriansa semi- barbarian tribe living in southern Anatolia. Aspar and byantine son Ardabur were murdered in a riot inand henceforth, Constantinople restored Orthodox leadership for centuries.
Leo was also the first emperor to receive the crown not from a military leader, but from the Patriarch of Constantinoplerepresenting the ecclesiastical hierarchy. This change became permanent, and in the Middle Ages the religious characteristic of the coronation completely nyzantine the old military form. InLeo unsuccessfully attempted to reconquer North Africa from the Vandals. Inas a condition of his Isaurian alliance, Leo married his daughter Ariadne to the Isaurian Tarasicodissa, who took the name Zeno.
When Leo II died later that year, Zeno became emperor. Ro end of the Western Empire is sometimes dated toearly in 10085 reign, when the Germanic Roman general Odoacer deposed the titular Wyat Emperor Romulus Augustulusbut declined to replace him with another puppet. To recover Italy, Zeno could only negotiate with the Ostrogoths of Theodoric, who had settled in Moesia. He sent the gothic king to Italy as tje militum per Italiam "commander in chief for Italy".
After the fall of Odoacer inTheodoric, who hhappened lived in Constantinople during his youth, ruled Italy on his own. Thus, by suggesting that Theodoric conquer Italy as his Ostrogothic kingdom, Zeno maintained at least a nominal supremacy in that western land while ridding the Eastern Empire of an unruly subordinate.
InZeno was deposed by Basiliscusthe general who led Leo I's invasion of North Africa, but he recovered the throne fmpire months later.
However, he faced a new threat from another Isaurian, Leontiuswho was also elected rival emperor. Wuat Anastasius Iafher aged fmpire officer of Roman origin, became emperor, but it was not until that the forces of the new emperor effectively took the measure of Isaurian resistance.
He perfected Constantine I's coinage system by definitively setting the weight of the copper follisthe coin used in most everyday transactions. The State Treasury contained the enormous sum ofkglbs of gold when he died. Justinian I, who empite the throne inoversaw a period of Byzantine expansion into former Roman territories. Justinian, the son of an Illyrian peasant, may already have exerted effective control during the reign of his uncle, Justin I — In the same year, Justinian survived a revolt in Constantinople the Nika riots which ended with the death of allegedly thirty thousand rioters.
This victory solidified Justinian's power. The western conquests began inas Justinian sent his general Belisarius to reclaim the former province of Africa from the Vandals who had been in control since with their capital at Carthage.
Ina small Byzantine expedition to Sicily was met with easy success, but the Goths soon stiffened their resistance, and victory did not come untilwhen Belisarius captured Ravennaafter successful sieges of Naples and Rome. Although Agapetus failed in his mission to sign a peace with Justinian, he 10085 in having the Afteer Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople denounced, despite empress Theodora 's support and protection.
Nevertheless, the Ostrogoths were soon reunited under the command of Totila and captured Rome on 17 December ; Oi what you looking at little rich boy was eventually recalled by Justinian in early Totila was defeated and died at the Battle of Busta Gallorum.
Despite continuing resistance from a few Goth garrisons and two subsequent invasions by the Franks and Alamannithe war for the Italian peninsula was at an end.
The Byzantine empire held on to a small slice of the Spania coast until the reign of Heraclius. In how to clear out cache east, Roman—Persian Wars continued until when Justinian's and Khusro's envoys agreed on a year peace.
By the mids, Justinian had won victories in most theatres of operation, with the notable exception of the Balkanswhich were subjected to repeated incursions from the Slavs. Inhappene Empire faced a great invasion of Kutrigurs and Sclaveni.
Justinian called Belisarius out of retirement, but once the immediate danger was over, the emperor took charge himself. The news that Justinian was reinforcing his Danube fleet made the Kutrigurs anxious, and they agreed to a treaty which gave them a subsidy and safe passage back across the river. Justinian became universally famous empre of his legislative work, remarkable for its sweeping aftsr.
In hxppened Pandectscompleted under Tribonian 's direction inorder and system were found in the contradictory rulings of the great Roman jurists, and a textbook, the Institutioneswas issued to facilitate instruction in the law schools. The fourth book, the Novellaeconsisted of collections of imperial edicts promulgated between and Because of his ecclesiastical policies, Justinian came into collision with the Jewsthe pagans, and various Christian sects.
The latter included the Manichaeansthe Nestoriansthe Monophysitesand the Arians. In order to completely eradicate paganismJustinian closed the famous philosophic school in Athens in During the 6th century, the traditional Greco-Roman culture was still influential in the Eastern empire with prominent representatives such as the natural philosopher John Philoponus. Nevertheless, the Christian philosophy and culture were in the ascendant and began to dominate the older culture.
Hymns written by Romanos the Melode marked the development of the Divine Liturgywhile what do marines do when they are not deployed and builders worked to complete the new Church of the Empkre WisdomHagia Sophiadesigned to replace an older church destroyed in the course of the Nika revolt.
Hagia Sophia stands today as one of the major monuments of architectural history. After Justinian died inhis successor, Justin II refused to pay the large tribute to the Persians. Meanwhile, the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy; by the end of the century only a affter of Italy was in Byzantine hands. Justin's successor, Tiberius IItue between his enemies, awarded subsidies to the Avars while taking military action against the Persians.
Though Tiberius' general, Mauriceled an effective campaign on the eastern frontier, subsidies failed to restrain the Avars. They captured the Balkan fortress of Sirmium inwhile the Slavs began to make inroads across the Danube. Maurice, who meanwhile succeeded Tiberius, intervened in a Persian civil war, placed the legitimate Khosrau II back on the throne and married his daughter to him.
Maurice's treaty with his new brother-in-law enlarged the territories of the Empire to the East and allowed the energetic Emperor to focus on the Balkans. By a series of successful Byzantine campaigns had tto the Avars and Slavs back across the Danube. After Maurice's murder by PhocasKhosrau used the pretext to reconquer the Roman province of Mesopotamia.
He was eventually deposed in by Heraclius, who empir to Constantinople from Carthage with an icon affixed to ho prow of his ship.
In an attempt to heal the doctrinal divide between Chalcedonian and monophysite Christians, Heraclius proposed monotheletism as a compromise. In the new doctrine was posted in the narthex of Hagia Sophia as part of a byzatine called the Ekthesiswhich also forbade further discussion of the issue.
By this time, however, Syria emipre Palestineboth uappened of monophysite belief, had fallen to the Arabs, and another monophysite center, Egypt, fell by Ambivalence toward Byzantine rule on the part of monophysites how to choose wood for kitchen cabinets have lessened local resistance to the Arab expansion.
Heraclius did succeed in establishing a dynasty, and his descendants held onto the throne, with some interruption, until
Byzantine Empire - Byzantine Empire - Byzantine decline and subjection to Western influences: – Basil II never married. But after his death his relatives remained in possession of the throne until , less because of their efficiency than because of a general feeling among the Byzantine people that the prosperity of the empire was connected with the continuity of the Macedonian. After ,Byzantine territory shrank,owing to incursions by aggressive Western European powers, by Catholic Crusaders, and later by Turkic Muslim invaders. In what ways did Byzantium continue patterns from classical Rome (pgs & ). After , Byzantine territory shrank, owing to incursions by aggressive Christian European powers, by Catholic Crusaders, and later by Turkic Muslim invaders. How did Eastern Orthodox Christianity differ from Roman Catholicism. Unlike Western Europe, where the Catholic Church maintained some degree of independence from political authorities, in. Byzantium the emperor .
The Byzantine Empire , also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire , or Byzantium , was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe.
Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from its earlier incarnation because it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I r.
Under Theodosius I r. In the reign of Heraclius r. The borders of the empire fluctuated through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I r.
The Byzantine—Sasanian War of — exhausted the empire's resources, and during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, it lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria , to the Rashidun Caliphate.
During the Macedonian dynasty 10th—11th centuries , the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance , which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia.
The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration , and by the 12th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. The empire was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade , when Constantinople was sacked in and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in , the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans in the Byzantine—Ottoman wars over the 14th and 15th centuries. The last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond , would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years later in the siege.
The older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history  and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions,  it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its increasingly predominant Greek element. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire.
The Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and North Africa. These territories were home to many different cultural groups, both urban populations, and rural populations. Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces were more urbanized than the western, having previously been united under the Macedonian Empire and Hellenised by the influence of Greek culture.
The West also suffered more heavily from the instability of the 3rd century AD. This distinction between the established Hellenised East and the younger Latinised West persisted and became increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two worlds. An early instance of the partition of the Empire into East and West occurred in when Emperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the tetrarchy , to guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire.
He associated himself with a co-emperor Augustus , and each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesar , to share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner. Each tetrarch was in charge of a part of the Empire. The tetrarchy collapsed, however, in and a few years later Constantine I reunited the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus.
In , Constantine moved the seat of the Empire to Constantinople, which he founded as a second Rome on the site of Byzantium, a city strategically located on the trade routes between Europe and Asia and between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Constantine introduced important changes to the Empire's military, monetary, civil and religious institutions.
In regards to his economic policies he has been accused by certain scholars of "reckless fiscality", but the gold solidus he introduced became a stable currency that transformed the economy and promoted development.
Under Constantine, Christianity did not become the exclusive religion of the state but enjoyed imperial preference since he supported it with generous privileges. Constantine established the principle that emperors could not settle questions of doctrine on their own but should instead summon general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose.
His convening of both the Synod of Arles and the First Council of Nicaea indicated his interest in the unity of the Church and showcased his claim to be its head. In and he issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship.
In the 5th century, the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West — due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries. This success allowed Theodosius II to focus on codifying Roman law with the Codex Theodosianus and further fortification of the walls of Constantinople , which left the city impervious to most attacks until To fend off the Huns , Theodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila.
His successor, Marcian , refused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the Western Roman Empire. After Attila's death in , the Hun Empire collapsed, and many of the remaining Huns were often hired as mercenaries by Constantinople.
After the fall of Attila, the Eastern Empire enjoyed a period of peace, while the Western Empire continued to deteriorate due to the expanding migration and invasions of the " barbarians ", most prominently the Germanic nations. The West's end is usually dated when the East Germanic Roman foederati general Odoacer deposed the Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus , a year after the latter usurped the position from Julius Nepos.
Odoacer, now ruler of Italy, was nominally Zeno's subordinate but acted with complete autonomy, eventually providing support to a rebellion against the Emperor. Zeno negotiated with the invading Ostrogoths , who had settled in Moesia , convincing the Gothic king Theodoric to depart for Italy as magister militum per Italiam "commander in chief for Italy" to depose Odoacer. By urging Theodoric to conquer Italy, Zeno rid the Eastern Empire of an unruly subordinate Odoacer and moved another Theodoric further from the heart of the Empire.
After Odoacer's defeat in , Theodoric ruled Italy de facto , although he was never recognised by the eastern emperors as "king" rex. In , Anastasius I , an aged civil officer of Roman origin, became Emperor, but it was not until that the forces of the new emperor effectively took the measure of Isaurian resistance. He introduced a new coinage system of the copper follis , the coin used in most everyday transactions. The State Treasury contained the enormous sum of , lb , kg of gold when Anastasius died in The Justinian dynasty was founded by Justin I , who though illiterate, rose through the ranks of the military to become Emperor in In , Justinian appointed a ten-man commission chaired by John the Cappadocian to revise Roman law and create a new codification of laws and jurists' extracts, known as the " Corpus Juris Civilis ", or the Justinian Code.
In , the Corpus was updated and, along with the enactments promulgated by Justinian after , formed the system of law used for most of the rest of the Byzantine era. In , attempting to secure his eastern frontier, Justinian signed a peace treaty with Khosrau I of Persia , agreeing to pay a large annual tribute to the Sassanids.
In the same year, he survived a revolt in Constantinople the Nika riots , which solidified his power but ended with the deaths of a reported 30, to 35, rioters on his orders. In , a small Byzantine expedition to Sicily met with easy success, but the Goths soon stiffened their resistance, and victory did not come until , when Belisarius captured Ravenna , after successful sieges of Naples and Rome. Although Agapetus failed in his mission to sign a peace with Justinian, he succeeded in having the Monophysite Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople denounced , despite Empress Theodora's support and protection.
The Ostrogoths captured Rome in Belisarius, who had been sent back to Italy in , was eventually recalled to Constantinople in Despite continuing resistance from a few Gothic garrisons and two subsequent invasions by the Franks and Alemanni , the war for the Italian peninsula was at an end.
The empire held on to a small slice of the Iberian Peninsula coast until the reign of Heraclius. In the east, the Roman—Persian Wars continued until when the envoys of Justinian and Khosrau agreed on a year peace. Tribes of Serbs and Croats were later resettled in the northwestern Balkans, during the reign of Heraclius.
The strengthening of the Danube fleet caused the Kutrigur Huns to withdraw and they agreed to a treaty that allowed safe passage back across the Danube. Although polytheism had been suppressed by the state since at least the time of Constantine in the 4th century, traditional Greco-Roman culture was still influential in the Eastern empire in the 6th century. Philosophers such as John Philoponus drew on neoplatonic ideas in addition to Christian thought and empiricism.
Because of active paganism of its professors, Justinian closed down the Neoplatonic Academy in Other schools continued in Constantinople , Antioch and Alexandria , which were the centres of Justinian's empire. Completed in , the Hagia Sophia stands today as one of the major monuments of Byzantine architectural history. After Justinian died in , his successor, Justin II , refused to pay the large tribute to the Persians. Meanwhile, the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy; by the end of the century, only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands.
Justin's successor, Tiberius II , choosing between his enemies, awarded subsidies to the Avars while taking military action against the Persians. Although Tiberius' general, Maurice , led an effective campaign on the eastern frontier, subsidies failed to restrain the Avars. They captured the Balkan fortress of Sirmium in , while the Slavs began to make inroads across the Danube.
Maurice, who meanwhile succeeded Tiberius, intervened in a Persian civil war, placed the legitimate Khosrau II back on the throne, and married his daughter to him. Maurice's treaty with his new brother-in-law enlarged the territories of the Empire to the East and allowed the energetic Emperor to focus on the Balkans.
By , a series of successful Byzantine campaigns had pushed the Avars and Slavs back across the Danube. A revolt broke out under an officer named Phocas, who marched the troops back to Constantinople; Maurice and his family were murdered while trying to escape. After Maurice's murder by Phocas , Khosrau used the pretext to reconquer the Roman province of Mesopotamia.
He was eventually deposed in by Heraclius , who sailed to Constantinople from Carthage with an icon affixed to the prow of his ship. Following the accession of Heraclius, the Sassanid advance pushed deep into the Levant, occupying Damascus and Jerusalem and removing the True Cross to Ctesiphon.
After this, the Sassanid army was forced to withdraw to Anatolia. The loss came just after news had reached them of yet another Byzantine victory, where Heraclius's brother Theodore scored well against the Persian general Shahin.
The main Sassanid force was destroyed at Nineveh in , and in Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony,  as he marched into the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon , where anarchy and civil war reigned as a result of the enduring war.
Eventually, the Persians were obliged to withdraw all armed forces and return Sassanid-ruled Egypt , the Levant and whatever imperial territories of Mesopotamia and Armenia were in Roman hands at the time of an earlier peace treaty in c. The war had exhausted both the Byzantines and Sassanids, however, and left them extremely vulnerable to the Muslim forces that emerged in the following years. The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levant , sent frequent raiding parties deep into Asia Minor, and in — laid siege to Constantinople itself.
The Arab fleet was finally repulsed through the use of Greek fire , and a thirty-years' truce was signed between the Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate. The city also lost the free grain shipments in , after Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased. The void left by the disappearance of the old semi-autonomous civic institutions was filled by the system called theme , which entailed dividing Asia Minor into "provinces" occupied by distinct armies that assumed civil authority and answered directly to the imperial administration.
This system may have had its roots in certain ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but over the course of the 7th century it developed into an entirely new system of imperial governance. The withdrawal of large numbers of troops from the Balkans to combat the Persians and then the Arabs in the east opened the door for the gradual southward expansion of Slavic peoples into the peninsula, and, as in Asia Minor, many cities shrank to small fortified settlements.
In , Byzantine forces sent to disperse these new settlements were defeated. In , Constantine IV signed a treaty with the Bulgar khan Asparukh , and the new Bulgarian state assumed sovereignty over several Slavic tribes that had previously, at least in name, recognised Byzantine rule.
Justinian II attempted to break the power of the urban aristocracy through severe taxation and the appointment of "outsiders" to administrative posts. He was driven from power in , and took shelter first with the Khazars and then with the Bulgarians. In , he returned to Constantinople with the armies of the Bulgarian khan Tervel , retook the throne and instituted a reign of terror against his enemies.
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