Chimpanzees eat with their hands, which they also use to throw objects at enemies and to create tools. Notably, they will poke a stick into a termite mound to feed on the insects, and crack nuts open. The animals forage during the day for hours, with peaks of . The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the common chimpanzee, robust chimpanzee, or simply chimp, is a species of great ape native to the forest and savannah of tropical gooddatingstory.com has four confirmed subspecies and a fifth proposed subspecies. The chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo (sometimes called the "pygmy chimpanzee") are classified in the genus Pan.
Humans have fought wars for thousands of years, and there is evidence that chimps do as well. Are both species innately violent? Inarchaeologists in southern Germany discovered a mass grave containing 34 skeletons. They included 9 adult males, 7 adult females and 16 children. All of the skeletons showed signs of fatal trauma, including head wounds. None how to find debit card account number them showed any signs of defensive wounds, suggesting they were killed whilst running away.
It offers some of the oldest evidence of organised group violence between two communities : that is, of war. Clearly, humans have been fighting wars for thousands of years, and we may not be the only ones.
There is growing evidence that several other species also engage in warfare, including our closest relatives the chimpanzees. That suggests we have inherited our predilection for warfare from our ape-like ancestors. But not everyone agrees that warfare is inbuilt. Archaeological evidence can be profoundly misleading. The "killer ape hypothesis", proposed by the anthropologist Raymond Dart inis a case in point. It turned out that the marks on the fossils were probably inflicted by the teeth of animal predators.
Dart discovered the first fossils of Australopithecinesearly hominids that lived in Africa million years ago. After examining the marks and holes in the bones, Dart became convinced that Australopithecines used primitive weapons like stones, what causes low blood sugar levels in newborns and tusks to hunt and butcher their prey and, crucially, one another.
For Dart, Australopithecines' ability to hunt had helped them become " carnivorous creatures, that seized living quarries by violence, battered them to death, tore apart their broken bodies, chmipanzees them limb from limb, slaking their ravenous thirst with the hot blood of victims and greedily devouring livid writhing flesh.
However, this idea was eventually discredited when it turned out that the marks on the fossils were probably inflicted by the teeth of animal predators. Nevertheless, the idea that humans have a natural propensity for warfare, a "killer instinct", remains popular. To find out whether it exists, we can study our closest animal relatives. Warfare is violence involving groups of animals: either group-on-group or group-on-individual attacks. Such "coalitionary violence" is rare in the animal kingdom, confined to a few social insects like ants, and social dk such as wolves, hyenas and lions.
By far the most studied and debated example is our closest living relative: the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes. When primatologist Jane Goodall set out to study a community of chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania in the s, little was known about their behaviour. Her work changed all that, for example revealing that chimps make tools. But Chimpahzees also discovered that these supposedly peaceful vegetarians were adept hunters, who killed other primates — particularly colobus monkeys — for food.
Then inGoodall got her first taste of something altogether more chilling: inter-group violence between two communities of adult chimps. The "war", as she called it, went on for four years.
The larger of the two groups began "systematically invading" the territory of the smaller group. What do chimpanzees do during the day the invaders found a rival chimp, they would attack it and leave it to die of its wounds. Goodall was shocked by the brutality of the attacks.
She described the invaders "cupping how to fake id card victim's head as he lay bleeding with blood pouring from his nose and drinking the blood, twisting a limb, tearing pieces of skin with their teeth…".
These events were even more disturbing because the two groups had been united just a few years before, so the victims "were individuals they had travelled with, fed with, played with, grown up with". There can be no doubt that whag of chimps kill one another. The question is why. Is this a natural part of chimpanzee behaviour, or is it something rare or accidental, or even a response to human interference? A long-time observer of another chimpanzee community in Uganda, Wrangham believes that chimps and humans are genetically predisposed towards lethal violence.
Wrangham argues that coalitionary killing can benefit the killers. By taking out a male from another group, the attackers chimpanzeees their neighbours' ability to reproduce and at the same time increase their group's access to territory, food and mates.
Of course, attacking your neighbours like this is risky: they might fight back, and kill or at least wound their attackers. But chimp society makes this unlikely. Although they live in close-knit groups, individual chimps often wander away from their groups to forage alone during the day.
These lone chimps are vulnerable. Wrangham has estimated that a group of chimps should chimpnzees kill their rivals when they outnumber them by about With this overwhelming advantage, the attackers are unlikely to suffer a serious injury.
This is exactly what Goodall observed during the Gombe war: groups of chimps targeting lone rivals. This "lethal raiding", as it's called, need not arise from an earlier conflict. It's not an escalation of existing hostilities. Instead, Wrangham argues that it comes from "an appetite" for hunting and killing rivals, "akin to predation".
For Wrangham, coalitionary killing is a natural behaviour that evolved because it could provide more resources for little risk. It evolved in apes, and has carried over to us: lethal raiding has been a feature of human warfare for centuries. The suggestion that lethal aggression and warfare are innate to chimps is, to say the least, controversial.
Many anthropologists reject Wrangham's arguments. In they published ro extensive critique of Wrangham's hypothesis. Sussman and Marshack point out that most animals don't kill one another. Fights are normally displays of aggression rather than physical assaults, and even then they are rarely to the death. Even male chimps rarely kill. Instead, they argue that chimp "warfare" is not an innate behaviour at all, but instead something shaped by the circumstances in which they live — specifically, by human interference.
According to Sussman and Marshack, humans have done two things that make chimps more aggressive. First, we have destroyed much of the chimps' forest habitat, either for logging or to clear space for farming. That means communities are forced to live closer to each other, creating more competition for resources.
Secondly, at a few study sites the researchers fed the chimps, to get the chimps used them. In Goodall's case, this "provisioning" usually involved fruits like bananas. But she soon realised it was having a ehat effect on the chimps. Worst of all, the adult males were becoming increasingly aggressive… there was a great deal more fighting than ever before.
Wherever researchers provisioned, the chimps became more agitated and aggressive as they competed for these high-quality foods. These points are certainly suggestive, but by itself it's not proof that chimps are naturally peaceful. There were several key questions. What happened when provisioning stopped, as it did in most sites: did the chimps revert to playing nice? What about sites that had never been provisioned: did the chimps there kill less often? It also wasn't clear that the habitat effect was real.
Were chimps really more aggressive in areas that were more severely deforested? To chimpanxees these questions, anthropologist Michael Wilson of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis — a former student of Wrangham — furing up with several dozen colleagues.
Their aim: record every chimp killing at every study site so Africa. The team analysed data from 18 chimpanzee communities, studied over a total of years.
The results were published in dah Nature. There were deaths in total: 58 directly observed, 41 inferred from mutilated bodies and 53 suspected — because the animals had either disappeared or had injuries from fighting. About durin of all deaths were the result of coalitionary killing by males from another group.
The team found no correlation between human impacts and the rates of death. What's more, the size of the protected area did not predict the rates of killing. In Kibale in Uganda, which Wilson described as "a high-quality forest that hasn't been logged", the chimpanzees killed at a higher rate than any other community, including Goodall's chimps at Gombe.
She studies west African chimps in Xhimpanzees, which are thought to be less aggressive than the east African chimps studied by Goodall. Pruetz initially supported the human interference hypothesis, chhimpanzees has now cautiously changed her mind. Pruetz has never seen a killing herself, but the chimps at her research site do behave with startling violence.
The next morning, her assistant found the dead body of the alpha male. The other chimps spent hours attacking and biting the corpse. Sussman criticises the study for combining observed, inferred and suspected killing.
He calls it "extremely unscientific". The data also makes inter-group chimpanzeee look more common than it really is, says How to download wav files from websites Ferguson of Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey. If you remove them, the death rate drops to 0. Furthermore, there is an elephant in the room: bonobosa second species of ape that are just as closely related to us as chimpanzees.
Bonobos muddy the waters still further. We know far less about bonobos than we do chimpanzees. But what is clear is that bonobos are less aggressive than chimps. They are sometimes called "hippy apes" because of their peaceful ways — and their habit of having sex as a way of saying "hello". Wilson's team also analysed data from bonobos.
In 92 years of observations of four bonobo communities, there is only one suspected death, and the data includes one site that was heavily provisioned. Nobody in this debate, on either side, is clear what we can learn from bonobos about innate lethality.
Humans, chimps and bonobos are all descended from a common ancestor, but was that ancestor violent or peaceful?
The average captive chimpanzee sleeps 9 hours and 42 minutes per day. Contrary to what the scientific name (Pan troglodytes) may suggest, chimpanzees do not typically spend their time in caves, but there have been reports of some of them seeking refuge in caves because of the heat during daytime. Chimpanzees Social structure. Jan 25, · Game theory is the study of the ways in which interacting choices of economic agents produce outcomes with respect to the preferences (or utilities) of those agents, where the outcomes in question might have been intended by none of the gooddatingstory.com meaning of this statement will not be clear to the non-expert until each of the italicized words and phrases has been explained and featured in . Feb 22, · Chimpanzees make nests in the trees at night by folding over branches to provide them with a safe platform on which to sleep, with a new nest being constructed every day. Although they spend a lot of time both sleeping and eating in the trees and do move about by swinging from branch to branch, most travel is done using a network of paths on.
This tiny print serves no purpose, but to make this book seem like an actual book. All Rights Reserved. So and so. Printed in the United States of America. The publisher may also include prose to deter would-be pirates. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. That is typically followed by a line or two about the publisher, followed by a sequence of numbers.
A flawless compendium of flaws. I can't think of a better way to be taught or reintroduced to these fundamental notions of logical discourse. A delightful little book. This book is aimed at newcomers to the field of logical reasoning, particularly those who, to borrow a phrase from Pascal, are so made that they understand best through visuals. I have selected a small set of common errors in reasoning and visualized them using memorable illustrations that are supplemented with lots of examples.
The hope is that the reader will learn from these pages some of the most common pitfalls in arguments and be able to identify and avoid them in practice. The literature on logic and logical fallacies is wide and exhaustive. This work's novelty is in its use of illustrations to describe a small set of common errors in reasoning that plague a lot of our present discourse.
The illustrations are partly inspired by allegories such as Orwell's Animal Farm and partly by the humorous nonsense of works such as Lewis Carroll's stories and poems. Unlike such works, there isn't a narrative that ties them together; they are discrete scenes, connected only through style and theme, which better affords adaptability and reuse. Each fallacy has just one page of exposition, and so the terseness of the prose is intentional.
Reading about things that one should not do is actually a useful learning experience. This work primarily talks about things that one should not do in arguments.
Edward Damer's book on faulty reasoning. Many years ago, I spent part of my time writing software specifications using first-order predicate logic. It was an intriguing way of reasoning about invariants using discrete mathematics rather than the usual notation—English. It brought precision where there was potential ambiguity and rigor where there was some hand-waving. During the same time, I perused a few books on propositional logic, both modern and medieval, one of which was Robert Gula's A Handbook of Logical Fallacies.
It quickly became evident that formalizing one's reasoning could lead to useful benefits such as clarity of thought and expression, objectivity and greater confidence. The ability to analyze arguments also helped provide a yardstick for knowing when to withdraw from discussions that would most likely be futile.
Issues and events that affect our lives and the societies we live, such as civil liberties and presidential elections, usually cause people to debate policies and beliefs. By observing some of that discourse, one gets the feeling that a noticeable amount of it suffers from the.
The aim of some of the writing on logic is to help one realize the tools and paradigms that afford good reasoning and hence lead to more constructive debates. Since persuasion is a function of not only logic, but other things as well, it is helpful to be cognizant of those things. The interested reader may wish to refer to the wide literature on the topic.
In closing, the rules of logic are not laws of the natural world nor do they constitute all of human reasoning. Logic does not generate new truths, but allows one to verify the consistency and coherence of existing chains of thought. It is precisely for that reason that it proves an effective tool for the analysis and communication of ideas and arguments.
The first principle is that you must not fool yourself and you are the easiest person to fool. Arguing from consequences is speaking for or against the truth of a statement by appealing to the consequences of accepting or rejecting it. Just because a proposition leads to some unfavorable result does not mean that it is false.
Similarly, just because a proposition has good consequences does not all of a sudden make it true. In the case of good consequences, an argument may appeal to an audience's hopes, which at times take the form of wishful thinking. In the case of bad consequences, such an argument may instead appeal to an audience's fears.
One should keep in mind that such arguments are fallacious only when they deal with propositions with objective truth values, and not when they deal with decisions or policies [Curtis], such as a politician opposing the raising of taxes for fear that it will adversely impact the lives of constituents, for example.
A straw man argument is usually one that is more absurd than the actual argument, making it an easier target to attack and possibly luring a person towards defending the more ridiculous argument rather than the original one. For example, My opponent is trying to convince you that we evolved from monkeys who were swinging from trees; a truly ludicrous claim. This is clearly a misrepresentation of what evolutionary biology claims, which is the idea that humans and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor several million years ago.
Misrepresenting the idea is much easier than refuting the evidence for it. An appeal to authority is an appeal to one's sense of modesty [Engel], which is to say, an appeal to the feeling that others are more knowledgeable.
While this is a comfortable and natural tendency for humans, such appeals cannot tell us which things are true and which are false. All appeals to authority are a type of genetic fallacy. Experts do not have the characteristic of producing absolute truth.
To determine truth from untruth we must rely on evidence and reason. However, appeals to relevant authority can tell us which things are likely to be true. This is the means by which we form beliefs. The overwhelming majority of the things that we believe in, such as atoms and the solar system, are on reliable authority, as are all historical statements, to paraphrase C.
It is fallacious to form a belief when the appeal is to an authority who is not an expert on the issue at hand. A similar appeal worth noting is the appeal to vague authority, where an idea is attributed to a vague collective. For example, Professors in Germany showed such and such to be true. Another type of appeal to irrelevant authority is the appeal to ancient wisdom, where something is assumed to be true just because it was believed to be true some time ago.
For example, Astrology was practiced by technologically advanced civilizations such as the Ancient Chinese. Therefore, it must be true. One might also appeal to ancient wisdom to support things that are idiosyncratic, or that may change with time. Such appeals need to weigh the evidence that is available to us in the present. Equivocation exploits the ambiguity of language by changing the meaning of a word during the course of an argument and using the different meanings to support some conclusion.
A word whose meaning is maintained throughout an argument is described as being used univocally. Consider the following argument: How can you be against faith when we take leaps of faith all the time, with friends and potential spouses and investments?
In one context, it may be used as a word that seeks cause , which as it happens is the main driver of science, and in another it may be used as a word that seeks purpose and deals with morals and gaps, which science may well not have answers to. For example, one may argue: Science cannot tell us why things happen.
Why do we exist? Why be moral? Thus, we need some other source to tell us why things happen. A false dilemma is an argument that presents a set of two possible categories and assumes that everything in the scope of that which is being discussed must be an element of that set.
If one of those categories is rejected, then one has to accept the other. For example, In the war on fanaticism, there are no sidelines; you are either with us or with the fanatics.
In reality, there is a third option, one could very well be neutral; and a fourth option, one may be against both; and even a fifth option, one may empathize with elements of both. In The Strangest Man , it is mentioned that physicist Ernest Rutherford once told his colleague Niels Bohr a parable about a man who bought a parrot from a store only to return it because it didn't talk.
You wanted a parrot that talks. Please forgive me. I gave you the parrot that thinks. The fallacy assumes a cause for an event where there is no evidence that one exists. Two events may occur one after the other or together because they are correlated, by accident or due to some other unknown event; one cannot conclude that they are causally connected without evidence.
The recent earthquake was due to people disobeying the king is not a good argument. With the latter, because an event happens at the same time as another, it is said to have caused it. In various disciplines, this is referred to as confusing correlation with causation. Here is an example paraphrased from comedian Stewart Lee: I can't say that because in I did a drawing of a robot and then Star Wars came out, then they must have copied the idea from me.
Here is another one that I recently saw in an online forum: The attacker took down the railway company's website and when I checked the schedule of arriving trains, what do you know, they were all delayed! What the poster failed to realize is that those trains rarely arrive on time, and so without any kind of scientific control, the inference is unfounded. The fallacy plays on the fears of an audience by imagining a scary future that would be of their making if some proposition were accepted.
Rather than provide evidence to show that a conclusion follows from a set of premisses, which may provide a legitimate cause for fear, such arguments rely on rhetoric, threats or outright lies. For example, I ask all employees to vote for my chosen candidate in the upcoming elections. If the other candidate wins, he will raise taxes and many of you will lose your jobs.
Here is another example, drawn from the novel, The Trial : You should give me all your valuables before the police get here. They will end up putting them in the storeroom and things tend to get lost in the storeroom. Here, although the argument is more likely a threat, albeit a subtle one, an attempt is made at reasoning.
Blatant threats or orders that do not attempt to provide evidence should not be confused with this fallacy, even if they exploit one's sense of fear [Engel].
An appeal to fear may proceed to describe a set of terrifying events that would occur as a result of accepting a proposition, which has no clear causal links, making it reminiscent of a slippery slope. It may also provide one and only one alternative to the proposition being attacked, that of the attacker, in which case it would be reminiscent of a false dilemma.
This fallacy is committed when one generalizes from a sample that is either too small or too special to be representative of a population. For example, asking ten people on the street what they think of the president's plan to reduce the deficit can in no way be said to represent the sentiment of the entire nation.
Although convenient, hasty generalizations can lead to costly and catastrophic results.
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