What are the sources of vitamins and minerals

what are the sources of vitamins and minerals

Sources of Vitamins and Minerals

Sep 22,  · Vitamin A. Food sources include: Cod-liver oil, milk, eggs, sweet potatoes, carrots, leafy vegetables, and fortified foods such as breakfast cereals What . gooddatingstory.com means it’s official. Federal government websites always use gooddatingstory.com gooddatingstory.com domain. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on gooddatingstory.com gooddatingstory.com site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar.

Eating wjat variety of foods vitammins all food groups is the best way to ensure you are getting all the micronutrients needed for a healthy diet. Each food group lends itself to specific vitamins and minerals see Figure 8. Keep in mind that whole foods e.

A aources baked potato contains more vitamin C, folate, and potassium than a potato that is cut, soaked, and fried to make a french fry. Figure 8. Common vitamins and minerals found in each food group. The nutrient content of foods ajd typically highest when foods are allowed waht ripen on the plant, allowing the plant to fully develop the nutrients and phytochemicals it needs to sustain life.

Harvesting plants in the peak state of ripeness helps to ensure maximum vitamin and mineral content, and consuming freshly-picked or harvested produce usually maximizes how much of those nutrients make it into our bodies to be put to use by cells. But not all foods can be consumed immediately after harvest. How foods are handled, processed, stored, and prepared can impact how much of that peak nutrient level remains in the food.

Processing of food is an important step in our food supply. Harvesting and transporting foods to communities increases access to a variety of foods. Preservation techniques like canning and freezing extend the shelf life of foods and increase their availability outside of their peak harvest season.

In fact, because fresh foods can deteriorate rapidly, food processing techniques may result in better nutrient retention over time when compared to fresh items.

However, some vitamins are more stable than others, and the amount retained depends on the specific vitamin and the processing technique. Water-soluble vitamins are the most vitammins to the effects of processing, though other nutrients can be impacted as vitsmins. Method of Mineraks. Effect on Nutrient Retention. How to Minimize Nutrient Loss. Air exposure and time. Enzymes present in foods sourcs exposure to air can destroy nutrients, because as soon as the food is harvested, the food begins to slowly decompose.

Purchase fresh items in quantities that can be used as soon as possible. Cut up foods only when ready to use. Buy local produce to cut back on transport time and air exposure. Cooking mineralz kill bacteria, makes foods more appealing, and in some situations improves bioavailability of nutrients. But high temperatures for prolonged ae of time can destroy some vitamins. Use fast cooking methods like microwaving, steaming, or stir-frying.

Minerals and water-soluble vitamins can leach into the water. Limit the amount of water used to cook foods e. Use cooking water in food preparation. High temperatures may be used, which can destroy water-soluble vitamins, but commercial techniques usually aee rapid heating, which helps to reduce nutrient loss. Freezing does not reduce nutrient content, but if foods are blanched prior to freezing it may slightly reduce levels of water-soluble vitamins. Refining of grains. Many B vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, as well as fiber, are lost when whole grains are refined.

Choose whole grains whenever possible. Table 8. The effects of processing on nutrient retention. There is a notable exception to the effects of processing described here. In contrast to most vitamins, the bioavailability of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A, and similar phytochemicals called carotenoids is actually increased by the cooking process, because cooking, chopping, and homogenizing releases carotenoids from the plant matrix.

Thus, cooked carrots can be a better source of vitamin A than raw carrots. However, overcooking transforms some of the carotenoids into sourcws products, and in general it is best to chop and lightly steam vegetables containing carotenoids to maximize their availability from foods. In addition to getting vitamins from the foods we eat, there are some vitamins how to write a haiku peom can be synthesized in the body.

There are two ways the body can make vitamins: certain vitamins can be made from a provitaminor a precursor aources that can be converted into the active form of a vitamin; other vitamins can be synthesized by bacteria living in the intestinal tract. Vitamins made in the body from precursors include vitamin A, vitamin D, and niacin, one of the B vitamins.

Some vitamins can be synthesized not by our bodies, but by the helpful bacteria. Bacteria in the gut can make vitamin K and B vitamins. Skip to content Vutamins and Minerals in Food Eating a variety of foods from all food groups is the best way to ensure you are getting all the micronutrients needed for a arr diet. Method of Processing Effect on Nutrient Retention How to Minimize Nutrient Loss Air exposure and time Enzymes present in foods and exposure to air can destroy nutrients, because as soon as the what channel is spongebob on directv tv is harvested, the food begins to slowly decompose.

Temperature Cooking helps kill bacteria, makes foods more appealing, and in some situations improves bioavailability of nutrients. Water Minerals and water-soluble vitamins can leach into the water. What are the sources of vitamins and minerals High temperatures may be used, which can destroy water-soluble vitamins, but or techniques usually use rapid sokrces, which helps to reduce nutrient loss.

Freezing Freezing does not reduce nutrient content, but if foods are blanched prior to freezing it may slightly reduce levels of water-soluble vitamins. Refining of grains Many B vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, as well as fiber, are lost when whole sourcs are refined. References: 1 Devi, R. Food processing and impact on nutrition.

February 14, Vitamin A. March 6, Vitamin K. Metabolism of dietary and microbial vitamin B family in the regulation of host immunity. Frontiers in nutrition, 6, Biosynthesis of vitamins by probiotic bacteria.

Probiotics and prebiotics in human nutrition and health. Role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health. Bmj,k Previous: Classification of Vitamins and Minerals. Next: Dietary Supplements. Share This Book Share on Twitter.

Vitamin Synthesis in the Body

Oct 14,  · Each food group lends itself to specific vitamins and minerals (see Figure ). Keep in mind that whole foods (e.g., fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and low-fat dairy foods such as milk and cheese) contain more vitamins and minerals than their processed gooddatingstory.com: Alice Callahan, Heather Leonard, MEd, Rdn, Tamberly Powell. Humans cannot live without vitamins and the human body cannot produce it on its own (except vitamin D and Vitamin B3). So it should be taken in required quantities through other sources such as the food we take, vitamin capsules etc. Vitamins can be found in major foods like meat, leafy vegetables, fruits etc.

The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply.

The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient. Unless specified, values represent those for adults ages 19 and older. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.

Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. Listing of vitamins Updated: August 31, Published: June, Should I take a potassium supplement? Do omega-3s protect your thinking skills? Can supplements save your sex life? E-mail Address. First Name Optional. Beta carotene can easily be converted to vitamin A as needed.

Essential for vision Lycopene may lower prostate cancer risk. Keeps tissues and skin healthy. Plays an important role in bone growth and in the immune system. Diets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk.

Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts. Sources of retinoids: beef liver, eggs, shrimp, fish, fortified milk, butter, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese Sources of beta carotene: sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, squash, spinach, mangoes, turnip greens.

Many people get too much preformed vitamin A from food and supplements. Large amounts of supplemental vitamin A but not beta carotene can be harmful to bones. Helps convert food into energy. Needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain and is critical for nerve function. Pork chops, brown rice, ham, soymilk, watermelons, acorn squash.

Most nutritious foods have some thiamin. Needed for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brain. Milk, eggs, yogurt, cheese, meats, green leafy vegetables, whole and enriched grains and cereals. Most Americans get enough of this nutrient. Essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system. Meat, poultry, fish, fortified and whole grains, mushrooms, potatoes, peanut butter. Niacin occurs naturally in food and can also be made by your body from the amino acid tryptophan, with the help of B 6.

Helps make lipids fats , neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin. Wide variety of nutritious foods, including chicken, egg yolk, whole grains, broccoli, mushrooms, avocados, tomato products. Deficiency causes burning feet and other neurologic symptoms. Aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may reduce the risk of heart diseaseHelps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays key roles in sleep, appetite, and moods.

Helps make red blood cells Influences cognitive abilities and immune function. Meat, fish, poultry, legumes, tofu and other soy products, potatoes, noncitrus fruits such as bananas and watermelons.

Many people don't get enough of this nutrient. Aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may lower the risk of heart disease. Assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth Helps make red blood cells and DNA. Meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, fortified cereals, fortified soymilk. Some people, particularly older adults, are deficient in vitamin B 12 because they have trouble absorbing this vitamin from food.

Those on a vegan or vegetarian diet often don't get enough B 12 as it's mostly found in animal products. They may need to take supplements. A lack of vitamin B 12 can cause memory loss, dementia, and numbness in the arms and legs. Helps convert food into energy and synthesize glucose.

Helps make and break down some fatty acids. Needed for healthy bones and hair. Many foods, including whole grains, organ meats, egg yolks, soybeans, and fish.

Some is made by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. However, it's not clear how much of this the body absorbs. Foods rich in vitamin C may lower the risk for some cancers, including those of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and breast. Long-term use of supplemental vitamin C may protect against cataracts. Helps make collagen, a connective tissue that knits together wounds and supports blood vessel walls. Helps make the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells.

Bolsters the immune system. M: 90 mg, W: 75 mg Smokers: Add 35 mg. Fruits and fruit juices especially citrus , potatoes, broccoli, bell peppers, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts.

Evidence that vitamin C helps reduce colds has not been convincing. Helps make and release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which aids in many nerve and brain activities. Plays a role in metabolizing and transporting fats. Many foods, especially milk, eggs, liver, salmon, and peanuts. No rmally the body makes small amounts of choline.

But experts don't know whether this amount is enough at certain ages. Helps maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which strengthen bones. Helps form teeth and bones. Supplements can reduce the number of non-spinal fractures. Fortified milk or margarine, fortified cereals, fatty fish. While the body uses sunlight to make vitamin D, it cannot make enough if you live in northern climates or don't spend much time in the sun.

Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Protects vitamin A and certain lipids from damage. Diets rich in vitamin E may help prevent Alzheimer's disease. Wide variety of foods, including vegetable oils, salad dressings and margarines made with vegetable oils, wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, nuts. Vitamin E does not prevent wrinkles or slow other aging processes. Vital for new cell creationHelps prevent brain and spine birth defects when taken early in pregnancy; should be taken regularly by all women of child-bearing age since women may not know they are pregnant in the first weeks of pregnancy.

Can lower levels of homocysteine and may reduce heart disease risk May reduce risk for colon cancer. Offsets breast cancer risk among women who consume alcohol. Fortified grains and cereals, asparagus, okra, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, legumes like black-eyed peas and chickpeas, orange juice, tomato juice.

Occasionally, folic acid masks a B 12 deficiency, which can lead to severe neurological complications. That's not a reason to avoid folic acid; just be sure to get enough B Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clotting. May help prevent hip fractures. Cabbage, liver, eggs, milk, spinach, broccoli, sprouts, kale, collards, and other green vegetables.

Intestinal bacteria make a form of vitamin K that accounts for half your requirements. If you take an anticoagulant, keep your vitamin K intake consistent. Builds and protects bones and teeth. Helps with muscle contractions and relaxation, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission. Plays a role in hormone secretion and enzyme activation. Helps maintain healthy blood pressure.

Yogurt, cheese, milk, tofu, sardines, salmon, fortified juices, leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli and kale but not spinach or Swiss chard, which have binders that lessen absorption. Diets very high in calcium may increase the risk of prostate cancer. Balances fluids in the body. A component of stomach acid, essential to digestion.

Salt sodium chloride , soy sauce, processed foods. Enhances the activity of insulin, helps maintain normal blood glucose levels, and is needed to free energy from glucose. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, potatoes, some cereals, nuts, cheese.

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