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The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System, with the name describing the galaxy's appearance from Earth: a hazy band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked gooddatingstory.com term Milky Way is a translation of the Latin via lactea, from the Greek ?????????? ?????? (galaktikos kyklos, "milky circle"). Over the years, Chris Barber's Jazz Band evolved into the Chris Barber Jazz and Blues Band, a richly-textured eight-piece group, blending brass, reeds, and electric guitar into a unique and unmistakable mix of blues and jazz. And despite being 'on the slide' since , having performed over 10, concerts and made thousands of recordings, the.
The Milky Way [a] is the galaxy that contains our Solar Systemwith the name describing the galaxy's appearance from Earth : a hazy band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye. Galileo Galilei first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in Until the early s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way contained all the stars in the Universe.
The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with an estimated visible diameter oflight-years   an increase from traditional estimates oflight-years. Recent simulations suggest that a dark matter disk, also containing some visible stars, may extend up to a diameter of almost 2 million light-years. It is estimated to contain — billion stars   and at least that number of planets.
The stars in the innermost 10, light-years form a bulge and one or more bars that radiate from the bulge. Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center orbit at approximately kilometers per second. This conjectural mass has been termed " dark matter ". The oldest stars in the Milky Way are nearly as old as the Universe itself and thus probably formed shortly after the Dark Ages of the Big Bang.
Brighter regions around the band appear as soft visual patches known as star clouds. The most conspicuous of these is the Large Sagittarius Star Clouda portion of the central bulge of the galaxy. The area of sky that the Milky Way obscures is called the Zone of Avoidance.
The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness. Its visibility can be greatly reduced by background light, such as light pollution or moonlight. The sky needs to be darker than about As viewed from Earth, the visible region of the Milky Way's galactic what we will do with a drunken whaler occupies an area of the sky that includes 30 constellations.
From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass around to the galactic anticenter in Auriga. The band then continues the rest of the way around the sky, back to Sagittarius, dividing the sky into two roughly equal hemispheres. Relative to the celestial equatorit passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Cruxindicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic, relative to the galactic plane.
Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and year, the arch of the Milky Way may appear relatively low or relatively high in the sky. The Milky Way is the second-largest galaxy in the Local Group after the Andromeda Galaxywith its stellar disk approximately ,—, light-years how to get into band management kpc in diameter and, on average, approximately 1, ly 0.
Estimates of the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. The low end of the estimate range is 5. Much of the mass of the Milky Way seems to be dark matteran unknown and invisible form of matter that interacts gravitationally with ordinary matter. A dark matter halo is conjectured to spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs kpc from the Galactic Center.
Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the mass of dark matter is 1—1. In Marchastronomers reported that the mass of the Milky Way galaxy is 1. The Milky Way contains between and billion stars   and at least that many planets.
As a comparison, the neighboring Andromeda Galaxy contains an estimated one trillion 10 12 stars. This how to use podcast in the classroom has at least a comparable extent in radius to the stars,  whereas the thickness of the gas layer ranges from hundreds of light-years for the colder gas to thousands of light-years for warmer gas.
The disk of stars in the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Rather, the concentration of stars decreases with distance from the center of the Milky Way.
For reasons that are not understood, beyond a radius of roughly 40, ly 13 kpc from the center, the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius. Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to how to get into band management as there are stars in the Milky What is lead found in,   and microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars.
The Milky Way consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a warped disk of gas, dust and stars. A galactic quadrant, or quadrant of the Milky Way, refers to one of four circular sectors in the division of the Milky Way. In astronomical practice, the delineation of the galactic quadrants is based upon the galactic coordinate systemwhich places the Sun as the origin of the mapping system. Quadrants are described using ordinals — for example, "1st galactic quadrant",  "second galactic quadrant",  or "third quadrant of the Milky Way".
The Sun is 25,—28, ly 7. This value is estimated using geometric -based methods or by measuring selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candleswith different techniques yielding various values within this approximate range.
The nature of the Milky Way's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning how to host mail server 1 to 5 kpc 3,—16, ly and 10—50 degrees relative to the line of sight from Earth to the Galactic Center. Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of the Milky Way. Intwo gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission were detected to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
The diameter of each of the bubbles is about 25, light-years 7. These observations are best interpreted as a magnetized outflow driven by star formation in the central ly pc of the Milky Way. Outside the gravitational influence of the Galactic bar, the structure of the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way is organized into four spiral arms. The Milky Way's spiral structure is uncertain, and there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Milky Way's spiral arms.
Two spiral arms, the Scutum—Centaurus arm and the Carina—Sagittarius arm, have tangent points inside the Sun's orbit about the center of the Milky Way. If these arms contain an overdensity of stars compared to the average density of stars in the Galactic disk, it would be detectable by counting the stars near the tangent point.
The rest of the arms contain excess gas but not excess old stars. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy is unclear. The Near 3 kpc Arm also called the Expanding 3 how to draw a hummer limo Arm or simply the 3 kpc Arm was discovered in the s by astronomer van Woerden and collaborators through 21 centimeter radio measurements of H I atomic hydrogen.
It is located in the fourth galactic quadrant at a distance of about 5. It is located in the first galactic quadrant at a distance of 3 kpc about 10, ly from the Galactic Center. A simulation published in suggested that the Milky Way may have obtained its spiral arm structure as a result of repeated collisions with the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.
It has been suggested that the Milky Way contains two different spiral patterns: an inner one, formed by the Sagittarius arm, that rotates fast and an outer one, formed by the Carina and Perseus arms, whose rotation velocity is slower and whose arms are tightly wound. In this scenario, suggested by numerical simulations of the dynamics of the different spiral arms, the outer pattern would form an outer pseudoring and the two patterns would be connected by the Cygnus arm.
Outside of the major spiral arms is the Monoceros Ring or Outer Ringa ring of gas and stars torn from other galaxies billions of years ago. However, several members of the scientific community recently restated their position affirming the Monoceros structure is nothing more than an over-density produced by the flared and warped thick disk of the Milky Way. Although the disk contains dust that obscures the view in some wavelengths, the halo component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high densitybut does not take place in the halo, as there is little cool gas to collapse into stars.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure. With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy M31 extends much farther than previously thought,  the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way extending farther is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm   and of a similar extension of the Scutum—Centaurus Arm.
Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxyit was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky shows a huge and diffuse structure spread out across an area around 5, times the size of a full moon within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models.
The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Milky Way. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way. This galaxy is tentatively named the Virgo Stellar Stream and is found in the direction of Virgo about 30, light-years 9 kpc away. In addition to the stellar halo, the Chandra X-ray ObservatoryXMM-Newtonand Suzaku have provided evidence that there is a gaseous halo with a large amount of hot gas.
The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light-years, much farther than the stellar halo and close to the distance of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The mass of this hot halo is nearly equivalent to the mass of the Milky Way itself. Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic ordinary matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old.
However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way. Boehle et al. There are about stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8.
On the other hand, there are 64 known stars of any magnitude, not counting 4 brown dwarfs within 5 parsecs 16 ly of the Sun, giving a density how to reduce fat knees about one star per 8. This illustrates the fact that there are far more faint stars than bright stars: in the entire sky, there are about stars brighter than apparent magnitude 4 but The apex of the Sun's way, or the solar apexis the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way.
The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Herculesat an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center.
The Sun's orbit about the Milky Way is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions.
In addition, the Sun passes through the Galactic plane approximately 2. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass lifeform extinction periods on Earth.
At this speed, it takes around 1, years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU astronomical unit. The stars and gas in the Milky Way rotate about its center differentiallymeaning that the rotation period varies with location. As is typical for spiral galaxies, the orbital speed of most stars in the Milky Way does not depend strongly on their distance from the center.
This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate, and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them. The rotation curve shown in the figure describes this rotation. Toward the center of the Milky Way the orbit speeds are too low, whereas beyond 7 kpcs the speeds are too high to match what would be expected from the universal law of gravitation.
If the Milky Way contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic ordinary matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center. However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation. This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter.
Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve. The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Nearly half the matter in the Milky Way may have come from other distant galaxies.
Within a few billion years of how to get the indie look birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly. Due to conservation of angular momentumthis led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk. Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk.
Nov 08, · Like many jobs in the music business, there are several different paths into music management. Music management companies: Many aspiring managers start working at a management company in an entry-level gooddatingstory.comng an assistant or taking an admin position is a good way to learn the ropes and build connections. The Volkswagen emissions scandal, also known as Dieselgate or Emissionsgate, began in September , when the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act to German automaker Volkswagen Group. The agency had found that Volkswagen had intentionally programmed turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines to activate their emissions. Aug 13, · Attach a new band with end caps. If you are attaching a new band to a watch that has end caps, you will need to ensure your new straps fits the old end caps. Fix the new band to the end caps by first sliding the spring bar into the end caps. Then move it into position between the lugs, pressing the bottom of the spring bar into the lower lug.
Among them was a group of five scientists at the West Virginia University Center for Alternative Fuels Engines and Emissions CAFEE , who used Japanese on board emission testing system and detected additional emissions during live road tests on two out of three diesel cars. The new road testing data and the purchased data were generated using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems PEMS developed by multiple individuals in the mid-late s and published in May Regulators in multiple countries began to investigate Volkswagen,  and its stock price fell in value by a third in the days immediately after the news.
In January , Volkswagen pleaded guilty to criminal charges and signed an agreed Statement of Facts, which drew on the results of an investigation Volkswagen had itself commissioned from US lawyers Jones Day.
The statement set out how engineers had developed the defeat devices, because diesel models could not pass US emissions tests without them, and deliberately sought to conceal their use. The "unprecedented" plea deal formalized the punishment which Volkswagen had agreed to. The scandal raised awareness over the higher levels of pollution emitted by all diesel-powered vehicles from a wide range of car makers, which under real-world driving conditions exceeded legal emission limits.
A discussion was sparked on the topic of software-controlled machinery being generally prone to cheating, and a way out would be to open source the software for public scrutiny. In general, three-way catalytic converter technology, which has been very effective since the early s at reducing nitrogen oxide NO x in petrol engine exhaust, does not work well for diesel vehicles, which emit 20 times more NO x unless somehow treated. To deal with this fact, in some managers at Volkswagen intended to purchase the rights to Mercedes ' bulky, expensive, high maintenance "Selective catalytic reduction," urea-based exhaust BlueTec treatment system for reducing diesel exhaust pollution.
Other managers at Volkswagen rejected BlueTec, and preferred to develop their own inexpensive " lean NO x trap " system. The "lean NO x trap" team won, but their solution did not actually work.
Nonetheless, Volkswagen promoted the technological miracle of fast, cheap, and green diesel vehicles — but the impression projected to outsiders did not reflect the reality. Starting in the model year , Volkswagen Group began migrating its light-duty passenger vehicle's turbocharged direct injection TDI diesel engines to a common-rail fuel injection system. Volkswagen described the diesel engines as being as clean as or cleaner than US and Californian requirements , while providing good fuel economy and performance.
The award was rescinded in early October In , a Swedish researcher criticized the New European Driving Cycle standard for allowing large emission differences between test and reality. The project was shut down in , despite preliminary tests indicating gaps between emissions from lab tests and real world tests of about 10 to 20 percent.
In , the European Commission's Joint Research Centre published a report which found that all tested diesel vehicles emitted 0.
Sensors and electronic components in modern light-duty vehicles are capable of 'detecting' the start of an emissions test in the laboratory e. Some vehicle functions may only be operational in the laboratory, if a predefined test mode is activated.
Detecting emissions tests is problematic from the perspective of emissions legislation, because it may enable the use of defeat devices that activate, modulate, delay, or deactivate emissions control systems with the purpose of either enhancing the effectiveness of these systems during emissions testing or reducing the effectiveness of these systems under normal vehicle operation and use.
While the use of defeat devices is generally prohibited, exceptions exist in cases where it is necessary to protect the engine against damage and to ensure safe vehicle operation EC, These exceptions leave room for interpretation and provide scope, together with the currently applied test procedure, for tailoring the emissions performance [ The European Commission and European governments could not agree upon who was responsible for taking action.
Respirable suspended particles with a diameter of 10 micrometres — also known as PM 10 including diesel particulates — halved since despite the increased number and size of diesel cars in the UK. The independent body International Council on Clean Transportation ICCT commissioned a study in and obtained data on 15 vehicles from three sources. German said they chose to put US vehicles through on-the-road tests because their emissions regulations are more stringent than those in the European Union.
The ICCT expected the cars to pass, and thought they would be able to use the results to demonstrate to Europeans that it was possible to run diesel cars with cleaner emissions. They wanted to test a Mercedes as well, but could not obtain one. The three vehicles were all certified at a California Air Resources Board facility before the tests  as falling below the emissions limits when using the standard laboratory testing protocols. For their final test, they wanted to put even more mileage on the Passat and drove it from Los Angeles to Seattle and back again, virtually the entire West Coast of the United States ,  over 3, kilometres 2, mi.
The emissions far exceeded legal limits set by both European and US standards. One of the testers said, " This standard for nitrogen oxide emissions is among the most stringent in the world. For comparison, the contemporary European standards known as Euro 5 "EU5 compliant",   — models and Euro 6 models only limit nitrogen oxide emissions to 0.
Volkswagen Jetta . Volkswagen Passat . In London, where diesel road traffic is responsible for 40 percent of NO x emissions, air pollution causes more than 3, deaths a year.
Volkswagen's "defeat device" is specially-written engine-management-unit firmware that detects "the position of the steering wheel, vehicle speed, the duration of the engine's operation, and barometric pressure"  when positioned on a dynamometer using the FTP test schedule. The EPA's NOV alleged that under normal driving conditions, the software suppressed the emissions controls, allowing better fuel economy, at the expense of emitting up to 40 times more nitrogen oxides than allowed by law.
Shin Bet apparently knew about the scandal early. Primor confirmed that the meeting took place, but both Primor and Diskin denied tipping off Piech. According to the EPA, Volkswagen had insisted for a year before the outbreak of the scandal that discrepancies were mere technical glitches. The first sign that Volkswagen was ready to come clean reportedly occurred on 21 August at a conference on green transportation in Pacific Grove, California , where an unnamed company representative approached Christopher Grundler, director of the EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality, and surprised him by informally admitting that the company had been deceiving regulators.
Formal acknowledgement of the deception was made by Volkswagen executives in Germany and the United States to EPA and California officials during a 3 September conference call, during which Volkswagen executives discussed written materials provided to the participants demonstrating how Volkswagen's diesel engine software circumvented US emissions tests.
That admission came after the EPA threatened to withhold approval for the company's Volkswagen and Audi diesel models. Volkswagen's CEO Martin Winterkorn said: "I personally am deeply sorry that we have broken the trust of our customers and the public. He also said the board found out about the problems only "shortly before the media did", and expressed concerns over "why the board wasn't informed earlier about the problems when they were known about over a year ago in the United States".
Volkswagen announced that 11 million cars were involved in the falsified emission reports, and that over seven billion dollars would be earmarked to deal with the costs of rectifying the software at the heart of the pollution statements. Bosch provided the software for testing purposes and warned Volkswagen that it would be illegal to use the software to avoid emissions compliance during normal driving.
On 28 September , it was reported that Volkswagen had suspended Heinz-Jakob Neusser, head of brand development at its core Volkswagen brand, Ulrich Hackenberg, the head of research and development at its brand Audi who oversees technical development across the Volkswagen group, and Wolfgang Hatz, research and development chief at its sports-car brand Porsche who also heads engine and transmissions development of the Volkswagen group. On 3 November , Volkswagen revealed that its internal investigation found that CO 2 emissions and fuel consumption figures were also affected by "irregularities".
In November , California regulators claimed to have discovered software installed on some Audi models that allowed the manufacturer to cheat CO 2 emissions during standard testing, thereby also masking the cars' contribution to global warming.
These are prohibited in the United States, however the software is legal in Europe. On 29 September , Volkswagen announced plans to refit up to 11 million affected vehicles, fitted with Volkswagen's EA diesel engines, including 5 million at Volkswagen brand, 2. SEAT said that , of its diesel models were affected. In Europe alone, a total of 8 million vehicles are affected. In Portugal, Volkswagen said it had sold 94, vehicles with the software.
As the rules violation involved enabling emission controls during testing, but turning it off under normal conditions to improve performance or fuel mileage, it has been speculated that the software update might make cars perform less efficiently and impair fuel economy ; according to VW, however, its proposed solutions will be designed to achieve legal EU emissions compliance without impairing engine performance or consumption. As of September [update] it was unclear whether the repair would include hardware modifications, such as selective catalytic reduction SCR upgrades.
The company also announced a review of all of its brands and models, including its supercar marque Bugatti. On 8 October , Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn said in testimony before the US Congress that it could take years to repair all the cars, especially the older models, due to the required complex hardware and software changes.
He said that the fixes would likely preserve fuel economy ratings but, "there might be a slight impact on performance". The 1. It also announced plans to accelerate the development of electric cars and plug-in hybrids, as well as petrol, instead of diesel engines for smaller cars.
On 12—13 October , Volkswagen Group vehicle drivers in the UK started receiving notification letters, to "rectify the issue". At the beginning of October , Volkswagen suggested to let car owners decide whether their cars would be recalled for handling.
Volkswagen then decided to recall around 8. The German authorities require that Volkswagen remove the software and that Volkswagen ensures that emission rules are fulfilled. As of February , there were three sizes of affected diesel engines, and more than a dozen variations to the repairs exist, prompting Volkswagen to roll out the recalls in waves for each cluster of vehicle; the first model to be repaired was the low-volume Volkswagen Amarok.
German motoring journal Auto Motor und Sport tested two Amarok TDI pickups pre and post software update and found that whilst engine power had remained the same, fuel consumption had increased by 0. In France, the MediaCom media agency, which buys advertising for Volkswagen, warned the French newspapers on 22 September that it would cancel planned Volkswagen and Audi campaigns in case they would cover the emission violations.
On the occasion of German Unity Day , Volkswagen launched an ad campaign in German Sunday newspapers, that it wanted to express its joy about the 25th anniversary of German reunification, its pride about having shaped the country together with all people for the last 25 years, to give thanks for the confidence of the customers it had experienced during all this time and that it wanted to thank all its employees and trade partners in Germany, and that in one sentence, that "it would do everything to win back the confidence of its customers".
In September , Volkswagen's Belgian importer, D'Ieteren, announced that it would offer free engine upgrades to customers who had ordered a vehicle with a diesel engine which was likely to have been fitted with illegal software. In the United States, Volkswagen withdrew its application for emissions certification for its diesel models, leaving thousands of vehicles stranded at ports in October , which the company said contained software which should have been disclosed to and certified by the EPA.
This was a couple of software engineers who put this in for whatever reason All the indications are that residual values are unaffected";  the company, which continued to face pressure from E.
On 21 April , the federal district court for the Northern District of California, which was appointed in December to oversee almost all of the US litigation, including claims filed by vehicle owners and state governments, announced that Volkswagen would offer its US customers "substantial compensation" and buyback nearly , 2.
Following its admission and recall plans in the United States, Volkswagen also started to establish similar plans in the European Union, where it was estimated that 8. The European Union warned Volkswagen in that it did not believe it was moving fast enough to issue repairs on the recalled cars, provide consumers with appropriate information on what steps Volkswagen was doing to resolve the problem, and what compensation they were offering affected consumers.
In Germany, over 60, civil lawsuits of various degrees representing about , citizens were filed from through by Volkswagen owners, seeking similar compensation as Volkswagen had given to United States drivers. At the Braunschweig Oberlandesgericht Higher Regional Court Volkswagen argued that where the United States had banned the affected cars, no EU member state had banned the affected vehicle, and thus there was no basis for any compensation. However, Judge Michael Neef rejected a summary judgement for Volkswagen in September , allowing what was anticipated to be a multi-year case to go forward.
One of the other civil cases, serving as a template for those not covered by the VZBV case, had reached the Federal Court of Justice , Germany's highest court, and in May , ruled that the consumer was entitled to the full market value of the car, several times larger than what the settlement would have offered. It is unclear how much Volkswagen will own from a result of the remaining civil lawsuits.
A similar class-action suit against Volkswagen representing more than 91, owners is currently underway in the United Kingdom, seeking greater compensation for being sold vehicles known by Volkswagen to be defective. The High Court of Justice had giving preliminary findings in the case in April that there is a likelihood that Volkswagen did sell vehicles with a "defeat device" and attempted to abuse the process, allowing the trial to go forward.
A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Research Letters estimated that approximately 59 premature deaths will be caused by the excess pollution produced between and by vehicles equipped with the defeat device in the United States, the majority due to particulate pollution 87 percent with the remainder due to ozone 13 percent. The study also found that making these vehicles emissions compliant by the end of would avert an additional early deaths.
Earlier non peer-reviewed studies published in media sources, quoted estimates ranging from 10 to excess deaths in the United States related to the defeat devices based on varying assumptions. Since NO 2 is a precursor to ground-level ozone it may cause respiratory problems "including asthma, bronchitis and emphysema ".
A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Pollution estimated that the fraudulent emissions would be associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years DALYs and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars. NO x also contribute to acid rain , and visibly brown clouds or smog due to both the visible nature of NO 2 , and the tropospheric ozone created by NO. In October , the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission announced that it will not be investigating Volkswagen for possible violations of emissions standards, citing that a reasonable consumer would not be concerned about the tailpipe emissions of their vehicle and hence would not be a deciding factor in their purchase.
In January , public broadcaster VRT reported on Opel Zafira cars having lower emissions after an update compared to before receiving the update. Opel denied deploying software updates influencing emissions, and the Economic Inspection of the Federal Government started an investigation on the request of Minister of Consumer Protection Kris Peeters.
As of October , Volkswagen Brazil confirmed that 17, units of its Amarok mid-size pickups produced between and and sold in Brazil were equipped with the emissions cheating software. The automaker may still appeal the decision.
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